Ethics in Supervision


Course Objectives

1.  Describe why dual relationships are problematic.

2.  Describe supervisee resistance and identify ways to counteract it.

3.  Recognize and describe the need for boundaries in the therapeutic relationship..


In recent years, it has become generally accepted that supervision draws upon knowledge and skills that are different than, and go beyond, those of psychotherapy. Similarly, the ethics and legal imperatives regarding supervision both encompass psychotherapy issues and go beyond them. Furthermore, because supervision is a triadic rather than a dyadic relationship, the supervisor must always attend to the need for balance between the counseling needs of clients and the training needs of the counselor.

With the increase of litigation in American society over the past generation, ethics and law have become intermingled. It is important for the supervisor to remember, however, that ethics call the supervisor to a standard of practice sanctioned by the profession while legal statutes define a point beyond which a supervisor may be liable. For our purposes here, the functional interconnectedness between ethics and the law will be accepted.


Competence is an increasingly complex issue as mental health and supervision have become more sophisticated enterprises. Implications of both counselor competence and supervisor competence will be described here briefly.

Counselor Competence

By definition, a supervisee is a person who is not yet ready to practice independently. It is for this reason that supervisors are held responsible for what happens with clients being seen by the supervisee. At the same time, counselors must be challenged in order to become more expert. This, then, is the supervisor's tightrope: providing experiences that will stretch the counselor's ability without putting the client in danger or offering substandard care. Whenever a close call must be made, supervisors must remember that their obligation is to the client, the public, the profession, and the supervisee -- in that order. Therefore, the supervisor continually decides if the supervisee is good enough on a consistent basis to work with any particular client.

Supervisor Competence

First, the supervisor needs to know everything, and more, than is expected of the supervisee. Secondly, the supervisor must be expert in the process of supervision. It is not enough that clients are protected as a result of supervision; the contract between supervisor and supervisee dictates that supervision must ultimately result in better counseling skills for the supervisee. In order to accomplish this, it is generally accepted that the supervisor receive training in performance of supervision as well as supervision of supervision.

Dual Relationships

For both counselors and supervisors, any dual relationship is problematic if it increases the potential for exploitation or impairs professional objectivity. There has been greater divergence of opinion about what constitutes an inappropriate dual relationship between supervisor and counselor than between counselor and client. Ryder and Hepworth, for example, stated that dual relationships between supervisors and supervisees are endemic to many educational and work contexts. Most supervisors will, in fact, have more than one relationship with their supervisees (e.g., graduate assistant, co-author, co-facilitator). The key concepts remain "exploitation" and "objectivity." Supervisors must be diligent about avoiding any situation which puts a supervisee at risk for exploitation or increases the possibility that the supervisor will be less objective. It is crucial, however, that supervisors not be intimidated into hiding dual relationships because of rigid interpretations of ethical standards. The most dangerous of scenarios is the hidden relationship. Usually, a situation can be adjusted to protect all concerned parties if consultation is sought and there is an openness to making adjustments in supervisory relationships to benefit supervisee, supervisor and, most importantly, clients.

Therapeutic Relationships

As part of the mandate of competence, the supervisor must determine not only if the supervisee has the knowledge and skill to be a good counselor, but if he or she is personally ready to take on clinical responsibility. The issue of personal readiness can lead the supervisor to blur the roles of supervisor and therapist in an attempt to keep the supervisee functional as a counselor. This is problematic for two reasons: (1) it compromises the objectivity of the supervisor, especially in terms of evaluation; (2) it may allow an impaired counselor to continue to practice at the risk of present and future clients.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is key to protecting the counselor and/or supervisor from a malpractice lawsuit. Simply, informed consent requires that the recipient of any service or intervention is sufficiently educated about what is to transpire, the potential risks, and alternative services or interventions, so that he or she can make an intelligent decision about his or her participation. Supervisors must be diligent regarding three levels of informed consent: (1) the supervisor must be confident that the counselor has informed the client regarding the parameters of counseling; (2) the supervisor must be sure that the client is aware of the parameters of supervision (e.g., that audiotapes will be heard by a supervision group); and (3) the supervisor must inform the supervisee about the process of supervision, evaluation criteria, and other expectations of supervision (e.g., that supervisees will be required to conduct all intake interviews for a counseling center in order to increase interview and writing skills).

Due Process

Due process is a legal term that insures one's rights and liberties. While informed consent focuses on the entry into counseling supervision, due process revolves around the idea that one's rights must be protected from start to finish. Again, supervisors must protect the rights of both clients and supervisees. An abrupt termination of a client could be a due process violation. Similarly, a negative final evaluation of a supervisee, without warning and with no opportunity to improve one's functioning, is a violation of the supervisee's due process rights.


Supervisors should not shun opportunities to supervise because of fears of liability. Rather, the informed, conscientious supervisor is protected by knowledge of ethical standards and a process that allows standards to be met consistently. There are three safeguards for the supervisor regarding liability: (1) continuing education, especially in terms of current professional opinion regarding ethical and legal dilemmas; (2) consultation with trusted and credentialed colleagues when questions arise; and (3) documentation of both counseling and supervision, remembering that courts often follow the principle "What has not been written has not been done".

As gatekeepers of the profession, supervisors must be diligent about their own and their supervisees' ethics. Ethical practice includes both knowledge of codes and legal statutes, and practice that is both respectful and competent. "In this case, perhaps more than in any other, supervisors' primary responsibility is to model what they hope to teach".


Prevention of boundary violations is a laudable goal, but attaining it is unfortunately about as likely as eliminating crime and poverty. The point of view described in this article leads to several suggestions, though. The prevention of boundary violations depends, in large measure, on education of therapists, clergy, and other professionals. It is important that training programs include peer discussions and readings orienting trainees to the field's standards. There are numerous publications addressing the field's standards and the boundaries of clinical work. Such readings and peer discussions not only educate trainees to the field's standards, but also offer practical tips about warning signs of impending boundary violations. However, it is not enough to identify warning signs and teach that boundary violations are wrong because they violate our code of ethics. We would do well to educate therapists and other professionals to think of their dyadic work as located within their discipline's larger, supraordinate context. The educational process should help individuals join the values of their field, not simply be trained in a discipline that they are then authorized to practice independently. It is the recognition that we carry out our work in a larger context, that we have joined a field and joined its values, and that we and our patients each have a role that is subordinate to the larger task of treatment, that stands to help therapists and other professionals learn to reorient themselves when they begin to become lost in the work.

One concrete way of helping professionals stay aware of the larger context is through supervision or other perspectives on the dyad from outside it. Prevention of sexual misconduct depends on making easily available to therapists, clergy, and other professionals the possibility of consultation with others in the field, particularly at times of impasse. Therapists who routinely present their work to others in consultation, supervision, peer discussion groups, or case presentations are probably at less risk of becoming isolated and lost in the dyad in their work. This is not a simple matter in the current clinical climate, where financial pressures have squeezed treatment settings and therapists in a way that leaves little room for clinical conferences or case discussion.

Educating practitioners and students about central psychodynamic notions like transference, countertransference, and enactment, and teaching them the importance of accepting and tolerating the transference offered by the patient, seems wise. In therapeutic work, if the transference fits, wear it—even if it hurts! Awareness of the concept of enactment, in particular, has a double benefit. First, it teaches therapists about an inevitable therapeutic phenomenon that places them at risk for sexual misconduct but that also offers an opportunity to deepen their work. Second, knowledge of the concept of enactment reminds therapists that we are all inevitably vulnerable human beings. This awareness serves to minimize the unhelpful we/they split that can provide a false sense of security to therapists who believe that sexual misconduct can't happen to them. Unfortunately, in psychiatry today little is taught to residents about psychodynamics, much less about the complexity of tolerating intense transferences and the importance of enactment. These trends in training, coupled with the current focus on behavioral and symptom-focused treatment approaches that exclude attention to transference and countertransference, do not help. Despite all the good that comes from a focus on patient satisfaction, this trend may have the unfortunate effect of reinforcing therapists' inclination to refuse negative transferences.

It seems wise to cultivate humility in ourselves as clinicians and teachers of younger professionals, emphasizing the inevitability of our own fallibility in this complex work. However great our expertise, we remain fallible human beings, doing our work along a fine and fragile boundary.


Confidentiality of supervisees. Material obtained in supervision is confidential unless specifically stated in the supervisory contract or by exceptions recognized by the profession and law. Supervisees must keep confidential all client information except for purposes of supervision.

When a patient enters our office and psychotherapy begins, everything which is said or done by that patient, with few exceptions, are confidential. The patient holds the privilege to release the confidential information in legal proceedings. While you may object to the patient using these records, you must have solid grounds for your objection. While these are quite variable, generally patients can request and use their records in any way they please. In some instances, a legal guardian or conservator may hold the privilege if the patient is unable to do so. If the patient dies, their privilege passes to the patient's personal representative who handles legal affairs.

The holder of the privilege also has the right to read all information in his or her file with the exception of your personal notes which belong solely to you. Some therapists find this requires them to keep separate files so their personal notes do not become part of the patient's legal record. Your patient can read all notes which have their identifying information, diagnosis, treatment plan, prognosis, and other information including billing and information from other sources which you have included in the file such as notes from other physicians and hospitals. Any spare notes in the patient's file also have information which must be passed to the patient. All information in HIPAA notes are the patient's property and must be released. The file is the property of the clinician so copies must be made if the patient requests a copy of their file.

It is your responsibility to maintain the confidentiality of the records. Patient records should be kept in locked containers except when in use. They should be shredded when they are discarded to avoid the potential of having the notes fall into the hands of others. Office staff and others who handle the files should be made aware of the importance of confidentiality. Handle these records as if they were notes made by your own therapist about you. Your patient feels the same need to have the notes be private. Office staff, filing clerks, billing agencies, and others do not have the same burden of confidentiality as does the therapist. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to inform the staff about the importance of confidentiality and to take reasonable action to be certain that staff does not violate the patient's confidentiality. While this is a solid part of HIPAA, it seems to be regularly violated by clerks and other office staff. Often my patients who work for or with counselors in the community or in government report cases which are confidential which they have read with avid interest. Try to keep this sort of clerk off your staff.

Confidentiality is an often-discussed concept in supervision because of some important limits of confidentiality both within the therapeutic situation and within supervision. It is imperative that the supervisee understands both the mandate of honoring information as confidential (including records kept on the client) as well as understanding when confidentiality must be broken (including the duty to warn potential victims of violence) and how this should be done. Equally important is a frank discussion about confidentiality within supervision and its limits. The supervisee should be able to trust the supervisor with personal information, yet at the same time, be informed about exceptions to the assumption of privacy. For example, supervisees should be apprised that at some future time, their supervisors may be asked to share relevant information to State licensure boards regarding their readiness for independent practice; or supervisors may include supervision information during annual reviews of students in a graduate program.

Duty to Warn - Tarasoff is directly relevant to supervisors. Tarasoff implicated the supervisor also. The Supervisor is also responsible for advising the supervisee about conditions in which it is appropriate to warn an intended victim.

Reasons for Divulging Confidential Information

In 1976, important case law was made in California which is now followed throughout the United States. A romantic young man, Prosinjit Podder, from India, fell madly in love with Tatiana Tarasoff who did not reciprocate his desire. He confessed his intention to cause her bodily harm to his psychologist at a clinic at UC Berkeley. He subsequently murdered her. The unfortunate psychologist had followed the law which until then required psychologists to keep all information from patients confidential and to disclose threats only to the intended victim. Luckily, the case came to be known by the name of the murdered young woman and the defendant was the Regents of U of C so he is never named. The California Supreme Court determined that confidentiality laws did not apply when the following rules are met.

1. The threat must be communicated to the psychotherapist directly by the patient.
2. Serious threat of physical harm is imminent.
3. The potential victim must be reasonably identifiable.

In this case, the psychotherapist must:

1. Warn any and all potential victims.
2. Notify authorities including the police, sheriff, or call 911.
3. Take steps of some sort to prevent the threatened danger.

Case law has continued to add to the confusion about when Tarasoff applies. One case found it applied when property was threatened, another found it applied when there was no overt threat but a history of violence, in another case Tarasoff was found to apply to communicating threat of suicide to subsequent caretakers.

Under Tarasoff, the psychotherapist has the duty to both warn and protect potential victims.

A therapist is also required to breach confidentiality when a patient threatens to harm another person but there is no imminent danger or the victim's identity is unknown. In this case, however, the therapist is to take steps to prevent danger but is not to notify authorities or the potential victim.

Therapist are also required to breach confidentiality if the patient is in danger of committing suicide and is to take steps to prevent the danger from occurring. In most cases, this requires the therapist to hospitalize the patient.
The courts have required that therapists be able to predict when a patient will act on their impulses and cause bodily harm to themselves or others. Therapists, regardless of their experience are unable to predict when or if someone will be dangerous. Research has consistently borne out that therapists cannot predict violence above the level of chance (Stromberg et al., 1988; Bednar et al., 1991; Otto, 1992; Simon, 2001).

Some traits are more likely than others to predict violence, with the most robust being a history of violence (Simon, 2001), male gender (Simon, 2001), substance abuse (Stromberg et al., 1988). Peterson et al., 1983 has shown some positive results in identifying people who are likely to commit suicide. The scaling is simple and quick on the SAD PERSONS test and the results have been replicated (Campbell, 2003; Juhnke, 1994,1996).

Informed Consent

Supervisors must make sure that the supervisee has informed the client of the parameters of informed consent. This must include, but is not limited to, disclosure that the supervisee is an intern and what exactly that means. They must inform the client of the supervisory relationship. They must disclose the laws surrounding confidentiality and exceptions to confidentiality. Supervisor can verify this information by using a disclosure statement that contain all of the information necessary. Have the supervisee and client sign the disclosure statement.

The supervisor should inform the supervisee of the evaluation process they will use to determine the supervisors progress. The evaluation criteria and standards that need to meet should be discussed.


It is important to note that regardless of your behavior a patient may decide to sue you for malpractice. This could include you as well as the supervisee. This is a frightening prospect, since the grounds for filing a lawsuit are so vague that even the finest, most ethical clinicians find themselves involved in litigation which threatens to take away their license, their means of livelihood, and substantial sums of money.

The development of an ethical practice, however, may help you to avoid some of the more important pitfalls. Regardless of how many times you read through the law, regardless of how many classes you take in ethics, regardless of how well you follow the rules of the profession, make no mistake, this is a path you will need to pursue consistently throughout your career.

To be sued successfully for malpractice in a civil court, the client must prove that you have breached the standard of care (Black, 1996). There are four parts which must be seen by the court to have been met for the malpractice suit to proceed.

(1) In some way as a supervisor you have established an agreement between yourself, your supervisee and the client that you will work together in a therapeutic relationship. The law does not define this in terms of the length of time the patient has been seen or whether or not the patient has paid you. It is entirely the responsibility of the court to determine whether you have established a Duty of Care with the patient.

(2) The work done with this patient will be compared to the Standard of Care. This is also defined by the court based on what the court finds is the typical level of proficiency which would be shown by a supervisee under similar circumstances. It may be defined or suggested by an ethics code, a state standard, or case law. There is no clearly defined standard of care since both you and the circumstances in which the act occurred are unique.

(3) The client must show that there has been some Demonstrable Harm. Although some texts may imply that it is difficult to show demonstrable harm if it is psychological in nature since the client began treatment presumably due to harmful or painful problems which they hoped to cure, again, it is entirely the duty of the court to determine if you caused harm and, if so, how much harm was caused. The amount of harm caused whether psychological, physical, or financial can only be remedied in a civil suit by money. The court also decides how much money should be given the client (now plaintiff) for the harm caused.

(4)The client must also prove the supervisor and supervisee was directly responsible or the Proximate Cause for the harm which was done. So, the client must prove that the supervisee had an established relationship with the patient which would prove there was a duty to care, was working below the standard of care, which caused demonstrable harm to the client which could only have been a direct result of the supervisees actions.

Despite these levels of proof which sound difficult to attain, many therapist are sued successfully or have out-of-court settlements against them each year. Following a successful suit or settlement, one should expect an investigator from the licensing board to determine whether or not the actions taken by the counselor were egregious enough to sanction them by loss or suspension of their license, additional classes to educate the counselor and attempt to prevent further problems, or other measures.

First, it is important to take care of yourself. Supervisors who are having problems within their own families, use alcohol or drugs inappropriately, are having emotional problems, or simply need a vacation are the most likely people to make minor and major errors in judgment. This may occur from the distraction caused by the supervisor's own problems or from unconscious motives which are more likely to be enacted when one is not at one's best and inhibitions are lowered.

Second, stay in touch with changes in laws through professional organizations. Maintain your memberships and attend meetings on a regular basis. This will also help you make and maintain friendships with other practicing clinicians. You are likely to find it is helpful to know someone you trust for a consultation if you do find yourself feeling that a patient may cause problems for you. Your friends may also tell you in a much nicer way than the licensing board that you need to take a break from work.

Third, take frequent breaks from work. You will have a better chance of staying on top of your cases and come to work with a smile.

Fourth, look at your mail at a time when you can do some reading. Instead of stacking the journal you just got, scan through the articles and read the ones that interest you. You could impress your colleagues at professional meetings by dropping names and you could even try out some of the new techniques you read about and develop some skill with timing.

Fifth, if you or the person you are supervising has a patient walk in who describes a history of lawsuits, suicide attempts, and has a gambling problem which might cost him/her more than one can afford and you feel the acid turn in your stomach and your headache begin, check on the client's current level of suicide risk then on your the level of expertise needed to manage this difficult client. Do not agree to let the supervisee see anyone who walks in the door. Do not let the supervisee take on more clients than they and you can reasonably manage. We all learn from the work we do with our clients and our toughest clients teach us the most, however, to provide the client with the best care and to take care of yourself, seek information from those around you, especially experts. Reading journals and books on the topic is also very useful but it can lead to a false sense that you understand the problems you face with that particular client when you only understand the issue in a broad sense. All clinicians are much better in some areas than others and it is incumbent on the practitioner to know where they stand in their ability to treat different sorts of difficult clients.

Sixth, and most importantly, do your paperwork. It gives you time to reflect on what you are doing with the supervisee. It is also illegal to fail to do it. Some people find they do this best when they complete a formal note in the 10 to 15 minutes between sessions while others find they need to lay out an hour several times weekly or a long afternoon to get it done. Do not underestimate how much time this takes. Completing HIPAA notes can become very quick and efficient if you have a system and do them regularly. On the other hand, trying to recreate the important points of a session from hastily sketched notes during an intense session at the end of the week is nearly impossible. You remember that it was an important session but often lose the crucial meaning which was derived from the work done that day. The main idea to remember is not to fail to do notes until you find yourself served a subpoena by a court or a disability claimant. The notes you create at those times are not beneficial to you or your supervisee because they lack credibility which comes from a case note which is written soon after the session. While all this seems self-evident, it is important to recognize that keeping notes for anything other than an aid to treatment in most cases was rare until HIPAA was imposed only a few years ago. Many of us had become quite comfortable with brief, non-HIPAA compliant notes and, although we plan to change that habit, have not yet done so. Do it now. You will sleep better.

Last, know your limitations. Refer the client when you have no experience or training in treating the presenting problem. Refer them if they scare you and you feel you will not be able to find a colleague or supervisor who can help you sort out whether or not your supervisee should give this patient a try and if you have someone to help if you find you have trouble. Refer the client to a physician when you have an odd feeling that the problem does not sound solely psychological. Always refer them if there is any question about whether medication would be helpful. If they refuse, note they refused and why. Refer patients who abuse other substances if that is not an area of expertise or one in which you want to develop expertise. Having a drug or alcohol problem may seem minor and secondary to the primary diagnosis but it is amazing how frequently a drug or alcohol problem becomes the main problem very quickly or the main reason why no progress is occurring in therapy. Many of us had the fortune to be trained by masters of the craft of psychotherapy either during or after graduate school. Many of us have become the new masters of the craft. Still, for each and every one of us there are people who walk through our doors as clients and walk out as potential plaintiffs. Even the grand old masters have this happen so it can certainly happen to you.

Malpractice and the Licensing Board

Try to avoid doing anything which will cause you to have problems with the Licensing Board. Keep up on your paperwork. The State Board can require you to produce case notes in a very short time. If the Licensing Board sends you any sort of inquiry, do not take it lightly. Make sure they have experience. Do not just dash off a letter which answers the questions asked by the board. If they have written you and asked for a response, it is a serious inquiry about your treatment practices. The Licensing Board takes your responses seriously and what may appear to be a simple misunderstanding between yourself and your client could result in having to defend yourself and your license before a member of the Licensing Board. Make sure you have Malpractice insurance to cover the fee for an attorney to defend you. Being sanctioned by the Licensing Board is a public process and even if you do not lose your license temporarily and have to take additional classes or other tasks to bring your standard of practice up to that of other clinicians, you may lose your referral base. You will also be likely to find yourself the subject of gossip. The Licensing Board also may determine that you should lose your license to practice psychology permanently. This does not preclude having criminal or civil charges brought against you or your supervisee by your client(s). All of this is quite public also.

Malpractice and Ethics Committees

Try to avoid actions by ethics committees by following the rules and guidelines for practice. Make it a habit to check in on the state web site and the Licensing Board Web site on a regular basis so you know when laws are changing. Unfortunately, some therapists were convicted of violating ethics of their profession when they were following what had been a typical pattern but was in the process of changing. When you are uncertain about the rules, ask. Get answers in writing if possible. Know the name of the person with whom you spoke regarding how to most appropriately do tasks or render treatment. Consult with other supervisors and inform them of the difficulties you face. Seek legal consultation. The fee you spend may save your livelihood. Be wary of dual relationships. Be wary of any sort of variation in billing and collecting fees. Be aware of what you put in writing and that the information can be passed on to others even without your knowledge or consent, leaving you in a legal limbo which will certainly require an attorney.

Malpractice due to Criminal Allegations

The Attorney General is involved in these proceedings. They are the most serious offenses, usually involving fraud, collusion in criminal activities, and a variety of criminal offenses. In your practice, you do many things totally on your own and you are aware that within your office what occurs is privileged information. This requires that you set the standard higher for yourself and supervisee because a small bit of cheating quickly spirals into greater corruption. Do not lie, cheat, steal or engage in any behavior which could appear to have involved illicit activities. Do not enter into relationships with your supervisee which involves felonious behavior. Make it clear to supervisees who wish to have you collude with them in illegal activities that you will not do that and you must report behavior which would cause harm to others. Although therapist are rarely involved in these activities, conviction results not only in the loss of your license, it also results in criminal prosecution and incarceration. Some of the most frequent offenses involve defrauding Medicare by claiming to have performed services which were either not performed or were not reasonable treatment for the patients involved. These have usually involved large numbers of patients.

Clinical supervision can support practice within ethical boundaries by following four major principles. First, the supervision should be proactive rather than reactive. The supervisor should not wait for calamity to review the supervisee's work. Supervision should be continuous and of varying intensity, based on the clinician's caseload and other characteristics of the practice setting, such as changes in funding, management, or contractual obligations.

Second, the supervision should be sensitive to the supervisee's personal situation. A supervisor should be aware of significant changes in the supervisee's life that might indicate increased vulnerabilities. Recent divorce, severe relationship problems, serious illness, or death of a loved one can leave a clinician emotionally vulnerable. A clinician who has previously practiced without distress can unexpectedly change the manner of relating with clients and create boundary concerns.

Third, the supervisor must pay attention to the details of the supervisee's cases and the interactions between clinician and client. For example, it is not helpful to simply rely on diagnostic labels to explain clinician-client problems. Instead, the supervisor should ask the supervisee to relate the full narrative sequences of clinical encounters. The patterns or themes found in the clinician-client interactions can capture meaningful content for further analysis and examination.

Fourth, the supervisory interaction should incorporate guided exploration rather than cross-examination. Although focused investigation can play a role during a crisis, the routine supervisory process will generally discover more useful content through less directive means. We recommend the use of the Socratic method, in which the supervisor asks a series of questions that guide the supervisee to reveal and understand his or her clinical judgments and behaviors and, optimally, develop more appropriate views.

Using these four principles, clinical supervision can be an effective process for detecting cues of potential boundary problems and exploring them. Based on the literature and practice, we identify ten cues that suggest possible boundary problems. Each is paired with a recommended supervisory response. Whether a boundary problem is serious or not depends less on what the clinician believes than on the regressive response or other harmful response it evokes from a client. It is also important to note that what might be helpful for one client can prove harmful for another; supervisory responses must be tailored to the specific clinician-client situation.

Multiple Mandated Reporters

When two or more persons, who are required to report, jointly have knowledge of a known or suspected instance of child abuse or neglect, and when there is agreement among them, the telephone report may be made by a member of the team selected by mutual agreement and a single report may be made and signed by the selected member of the reporting team. Any member who has knowledge that the member designated to report has failed to do so shall thereafter make the report.

The reporting duties are individual, and no supervisor or administrator may impede or inhibit the reporting duties, and no person making a report shall be subject to any sanction for making the report. However, internal procedures to facilitate reporting and apprise supervisors and administrators of reports may be established provided that they are not inconsistent with this article. The internal procedures shall not require any employee required to make reports to disclose his orher identity to the employer.

Reporting the information regarding a case of possible child abuse or neglect to an employer, supervisor, school principal, school counselor, coworker, or other person shall not be a substitute for making a mandated report.

A county probation or welfare department shall immediately, or as soon as practicably possible, report by telephone, fax, or electronic transmission to the law enforcement agency having jurisdiction over the case, to the agency given the responsibility for investigation of cases, and to the district attorney's office every known or suspected instance of child abuse or neglect,except acts or omissions, or reports made based on risk to a child which relates solely to the inability of the parent to provide the child with regular care due to the parent's substance abuse, which shall be reported only to the county welfare or probation department. A county probation or welfare department also shall send, fax, or electronically transmit a written report thereof within 36 hours of receiving the information concerning the incident to any agency to which it makes a telephone report under this subdivision.

Any mandated reporter who willfully fails to report abuse or neglect, or any person who impedes or inhibits a report of abuse or neglect, where that abuse or neglect results in death or great bodily injury, shall be punished by not more than one year in a county jail, by a fine of not more than five thousand dollars ($5,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment.

Any mandated reporter who has knowledge of or who reasonably suspects that a child is suffering serious emotional damage or is at a substantial risk of suffering serious emotional damage, evidenced by states of being or behavior, including, but not limited to, severe anxiety, depression, withdrawal, or untoward aggressive behavior toward self or others, may make a report to an agency.

When an agency receives a report that contains either of the following, it shall, within 24 hours, notify the licensing office with jurisdiction over the facility:

(1) A report of abuse alleged to have occurred in facilities licensed to care for children by the State Department of Social Services.

(2) A report of the death of a child who was, at the time of death, living at, enrolled in, or regularly attending a facility licensed to care for children by the State Department of Social Services, unless the circumstances of the child's death are clearly unrelated to the child's care at the facility. The agency shall send the licensing agency a copy of its investigation and any other pertinent materials.

(b) Any employee of an agency who has knowledge of, or observes in his or her professional capacity or within the scope of his or her employment, a child in protective custody whom he or she knows or reasonably suspects has been the victim of child abuse or neglect shall, within 36 hours, send or have sent to the attorney who represents the child in dependency court, a copy of the report. The agency shall maintain a copy of the written report. All information requested by the attorney for the child or the child's guardian ad litem shall be provided by the agency within 30 days of the request.

Any agency shall immediately or as soon as practically possible report by telephone, fax, or electronic transmission to the appropriate licensing agency every known or suspected instance of child abuse or neglect when the instance of abuse or neglect occurs while the child is being cared for in a child day care facility, involves a child day care licensed staff person, or occurs while the child is under the supervision of a community care facility or involves a community care facility licensee or staff person. The agency shall also send, fax, or electronically transmit a written report thereof within 36 hours of receiving the information concerning the incident to any agency to which it makes a telephone report under this subdivision. The agency shall send the licensing agency a copy of its investigation report and any other pertinent materials.

The Legislature intends that in each county the law enforcement agencies and the county welfare or probation department shall develop and implement cooperative arrangements in order to coordinate existing duties in connection with the investigation of suspected child abuse or neglect cases. The local law enforcement agency having jurisdiction over a case shall report to the county welfare or probation department that it is investigating the case within 36 hours after starting its investigation. The county welfare department or probation department shall, in cases where a minor is a victim and a petition has been filed with regard to the minor, evaluate what action or actions would be in the best interest of the child victim. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the county welfare department or probation department shall submit in writing its findings and the reasons therefor to the district attorney on or before the completion of the investigation. The written findings and the reasons therefor shall be delivered or made accessible to the defendant or his or her counsel.

The local law enforcement agency having jurisdiction over a case reported shall report to the district office of the State Department of Social Services any case if the case involves a facility and the licensing of the facility has not been delegated to a county agency. The law enforcement agency shall send a copy of its investigation report and any other pertinent materials to the licensing agency upon the request of the licensing agency.

Identifying Information

Reports of suspected child abuse or neglect shall include the name, business address, and telephone number of the mandated reporter; the capacity that makes the person a mandated reporter; and the information that gave rise to the reasonable suspicion of child abuse or neglect and the source or sources of that information. If a report is made, the following information, if known, shall also be included in the report: the child's name, the child's address, present location, and, if applicable, school, grade, and class; the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of the child's parents or guardians; and the name,address, telephone number, and other relevant personal information about the person or persons who might have abused or neglected the child. The mandated reporter shall make a report even if some of this information is not known or is uncertain to him or her.

Information relevant to the incident of child abuse or neglect may be given to an investigator from an agency that is investigating the known or suspected case of child abuse or neglect. Information relevant to the incident of child abuse or neglect, including the investigation report and other pertinent materials, may be given to the licensing agency when it is investigating a known or suspected case of child abuse or neglect.

The identity of all persons who report under this article shall be confidential and disclosed only among agencies receiving or investigating mandated reports, to the prosecutor in a criminal prosecution or in an action arising from alleged child abuse, or to counsel appointed, or to the county counsel or prosecutor in a proceeding or to a licensing agency when abuse or neglect in out-of-home care is reasonably suspected, or when those persons waive confidentiality, or by court order.

Notwithstanding the confidentiality requirements, a representative of a child protective services agency performing an investigation that results from a report of suspected child abuse or neglect at the time of the initial contact with the individual who is subject to the investigation, shall advise the individual of the complaints or allegations against him or her, in a manner that is consistent with laws protecting the identity of the reporters.

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