Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence, Stalking, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

Problem/Condition: Sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence are public health problems known to have a negative impact on millions of persons in the United States each year, not only by way of immediate harm but also through negative long-term health impacts. Before implementation of the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) in 2010, the most recent detailed national data on the public health burden from these forms of violence were obtained from the National

Violence against Women Survey conducted during 1995–1996.


This report examines sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization using data from 2011. The report describes the overall prevalence of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization; racial/ethnic variation in prevalence; how types of perpetrators vary by violence type; and the age at which victimization typically begins. For intimate partner violence, the report also examines a range of negative impacts experienced as a result of victimization, including the need for services.


Reporting Period: January–December, 2011.


Description of System: NISVS is a national random-digit–dial telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized English- and Spanish-speaking U.S. population aged ≥18 years. NISVS gathers data on experiences of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence among adult women and men in the United States by using a dual-frame sampling strategy that includes both landline and cellular telephones. The survey was conducted in 50 states and the District of Columbia; in 2011, the second year of NISVS data collection, 12,727 interviews were completed, and 1,428 interviews were partially completed.


Results: In the United States, an estimated 19.3% of women and 1.7% of men have been raped during their lifetimes; an estimated 1.6% of women reported that they were raped in the 12 months preceding the survey. The case count for men reporting rape in the preceding 12 months was too small to produce a statistically reliable prevalence estimate. An estimated 43.9% of women and 23.4% of men experienced other forms of sexual violence during their lifetimes, including being made to penetrate, sexual coercion, unwanted sexual contact, and noncontact unwanted sexual experiences. The percentages of women and men who experienced these other forms of sexual violence victimization in the 12 months preceding the survey were an estimated 5.5% and 5.1%, respectively.


An estimated 15.2% of women and 5.7% of men have been a victim of stalking during their lifetimes. An estimated 4.2% of women and 2.1% of men were stalked in the 12 months preceding the survey.
With respect to sexual violence and stalking, female victims reported predominantly male perpetrators, whereas for male victims, the sex of the perpetrator varied by the specific form of violence examined. Male rape victims predominantly had male perpetrators, but other forms of sexual violence experienced by men were either perpetrated predominantly by women (i.e., being made to penetrate and sexual coercion) or split more evenly among male and female perpetrators (i.e., unwanted sexual contact and noncontact unwanted sexual experiences). In addition, male stalking victims also reported a more even mix of males and females who had perpetrated stalking against them.


The lifetime and 12-month prevalences of rape by an intimate partner for women were an estimated 8.8% and 0.8%, respectively; an estimated 0.5% of men experienced rape by an intimate partner during their lifetimes, although the case count for men reporting rape by an intimate partner in the preceding 12 months was too small to produce a statistically reliable prevalence estimate. An estimated 15.8% of women and 9.5% of men experienced other forms of sexual violence by an intimate partner during their lifetimes, whereas an estimated 2.1% of both men and women experienced these forms of sexual violence by a partner in the 12 months before taking the survey. Severe physical violence by an intimate partner (including acts such as being hit with something hard, being kicked or beaten, or being burned on purpose) was experienced by an estimated 22.3% of women and 14.0% of men during their lifetimes and by an estimated 2.3% of women and 2.1% of men in the 12 months before taking the survey. Finally, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of stalking by an intimate partner for women was an estimated 9.2% and 2.4%, respectively, while the lifetime and 12-month prevalence for men was an estimated 2.5% and 0.8%, respectively.


Many victims of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence were first victimized at a young age. Among female victims of completed rape, an estimated 78.7% were first raped before age 25 years (40.4% before age 18 years). Among male victims who were made to penetrate a perpetrator, an estimated 71.0% were victimized before age 25 years (21.3% before age 18 years). In addition, an estimated 53.8% of female stalking victims and 47.7% of male stalking victims were first stalked before age 25 years (16.3% of female victims and 20.5% of male victims before age 18 years). Finally, among victims of contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner, an estimated 71.1% of women and 58.2% of men first experienced these or other forms of intimate partner violence before age 25 years (23.2% of female victims and 14.1% of male victims before age 18 years).


Interpretation: A substantial proportion of U.S. female and male adults have experienced some form of sexual violence, stalking, or intimate partner violence at least once during their lifetimes, and the sex of perpetrators varied by the specific form of violence examined. In addition, a substantial number of U.S. adults experienced sexual violence, stalking, or intimate partner violence during the 12 months preceding the 2011 survey. Consistent with previous studies, the overall pattern of results suggest that women, in particular, are heavily impacted over their lifetime. However, the results also indicate that many men experience sexual violence, stalking, and, in particular, physical violence by an intimate partner. Because of the broad range of short- and long-term consequences known to be associated with these forms of violence, the public health burden of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence is substantial. Results suggest that these forms of violence frequently are experienced at an early age because a majority of victims experienced their first victimization before age 25 years, with a substantial proportion experiencing victimization in childhood or adolescence.


Public Health Action: Because a substantial proportion of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence is experienced at a young age, primary prevention of these forms of violence must begin early. Prevention efforts should take into consideration that female sexual violence and stalking victimization is perpetrated predominately by men and that a substantial proportion of male sexual violence and stalking victimization (including rape, unwanted sexual contact, noncontact unwanted sexual experiences, and stalking) also is perpetrated by men. CDC seeks to prevent these forms of violence with strategies that address known risk factors for perpetration and by changing social norms and behaviors by using bystander and other prevention strategies. In addition, primary prevention of intimate partner violence is focused on the promotion of healthy relationship behaviors and other protective factors, with the goal of helping adolescents develop these positive behaviors before their first relationships. The early promotion of healthy relationships while behaviors are still relatively modifiable makes it more likely that young persons can avoid violence in their relationships.


Introduction


Sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence are important public health problems that affect the lives of millions of persons in the United States. These forms of violence can lead to serious short- and long-term consequences including physical injury, poor mental health, and chronic physical health problems (1,2). For some persons, violence victimization results in hospitalization, disability, or death. Furthermore, previous research indicates that victimization as a child or adolescent increases the likelihood that victimization will reoccur in adulthood (3,4).


Before implementation of the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) in 2010, the most recent data on the national public health burden of sexual violence, stalking and intimate partner violence victimization came from the National Violence Against Women Survey, which was administered one time during 1995–1996 (3). This report examines these three forms of violence from the second year of NISVS data collection. The report describes overall prevalence of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization by sex; racial/ethnic variation in prevalence; how the type of perpetrator varies by violence type; and the age at which victimization typically begins for each violence type. For intimate partner violence, this report also examines a range of negative impacts experienced as a result of victimization, including the need for various community and health services. The purpose of this report is to describe the most recent data on the public health burden of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization and the characteristics of victimization. Researchers, advocates, and policymakers can use the findings in this report to inform efforts to prevent and address these forms of violence.


Methods


NISVS is an ongoing nationally representative random-digit–dial telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized English- and Spanish-speaking U.S. population aged ≥18 years. NISVS uses a dual-frame sampling strategy that includes both landline and cellular telephones and is conducted in 50 states and the District of Columbia.


In 2011, a total of 14,155 interviews were conducted (7,758 women and 6,397 men). A total of 12,727 interviews were completed, and 1,428 interviews were partially completed. A total of 6,879 women and 5,848 men completed the survey. The estimates presented in this report are based on completed interviews. An interview is defined as having been completed if the respondent completed the demographic and general health questions as well as all of the violence victimization questions. Approximately 40.0% of completed interviews were conducted by landline telephone, and 60.0% of completed interviews were conducted by using a respondent's cellular telephone.


The American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) response rate RR4 was computed by using weighted case counts (5). The overall weighted response rate for the 2011 NISVS survey was 33.1%. The weighted cooperation rate, which reflects the proportion of persons contacted who agreed to participate in the interview and who were determined to be eligible, was 83.5%.
The questionnaire included behaviorally specific questions that assessed being a victim of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence over the respondent's lifetime and during the 12 months before interview.


The specific types of sexual violence assessed included rape (completed or attempted forced penetration or alcohol- or drug-facilitated penetration) and sexual violence other than rape, including being made to penetrate a perpetrator, sexual coercion (nonphysically pressured unwanted penetration), unwanted sexual contact (e.g., kissing or fondling), and noncontact unwanted sexual experiences (e.g., being flashed or forced to view sexually explicit media).


Respondents were classified as stalking victims if 1) they experienced multiple stalking tactics or a single stalking tactic multiple times by the same perpetrator and 2) they felt very fearful or believed that they or someone close to them would be harmed or killed as a result of a perpetrator's stalking behaviors. Examples of stalking tactics measured by NISVS included receiving unwanted e-mail messages, instant messages, or messages through social media; being watched or followed; and having someone approach or show up in the victim's home, workplace, or school when unwanted.


This report examines the four subtypes of intimate partner violence that comprise CDC's definition of being a victim of intimate partner violence: sexual violence, physical violence, stalking, and psychological aggression (6). Intimate partner violence can be perpetrated by current or former spouses (including married spouses, common-law spouses, civil union spouses, and domestic partners),boyfriends/girlfriends, dating partners, and ongoing sexual partners. Questions concerning physical violence victimization included items regarding the experience of being slapped, pushed, or shoved, as well as items categorized as severe physical violence in the literature (7). These include being hurt by pulling hair, being hit with something hard, being kicked, being slammed against something, attempts to hurt by choking or suffocating, being beaten, being burned on purpose, and having a partner use a knife or gun against the victim. Psychological aggression includes expressive aggression (e.g., name calling, or insulting or humiliating an intimate partner) and coercive control, which includes behaviors that are intended to monitor, control, or threaten an intimate partner.


Intimate partner violence-related impact was measured by using a set of questions that assessed a range of direct impacts that might be experienced by victims of intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence–related impacts include fear, concern for safety, having experienced at least one post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom, injury, having contacted a crisis hotline, needing health care, needing housing services, needing victim's advocate services, needing legal services, and having missed at least 1 day of work or school. For those who reported being raped, it also includes contracting a sexually transmitted infection or, for women only, becoming pregnant. This information not only serves as an indicator of the range in severity of victimization experiences but also documents the need for particular preventive services and responses. Intimate partner violence–related impact was assessed in relation to specific perpetrators, without regard to when the impact occurred. It also was asked in relation to all forms of intimate partner violence experienced in that relationship. The prevalence of intimate partner violence–related impact was calculated among those who experienced contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner. Contact sexual violence includes not only rape but also being made to penetrate a perpetrator, sexual coercion, and unwanted sexual contact.


Analyses were stratified by the respondent's sex. Prevalence by race and ethnicity also were estimated. No formal statistical comparisons of the prevalence estimates between demographic subgroups were made. Statistical inference for prevalence and population estimates were made on the basis of weighted analyses, in which complex sample design features (including stratified sampling, weighting for unequal sample selection probabilities, and nonresponse adjustments) were taken into account to produce nationally representative estimates. The estimated number of victims affected by a particular form of violence is based on U.S. population estimates from the census projections by state, sex, age, and race/ethnicity (8–10).


The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of an estimate's reliability and was calculated for all estimates in this report. If the RSE was >30%, the estimate was deemed unreliable and is not reported. Consideration was also given to the case count. If the estimate was based on a numerator that was ≤20, the estimate also is not reported.

Several of the sexual violence and stalking questions were modified between the 2010 and 2011 survey. Specifically, questions from 2010 regarding rape and being made to penetrate a perpetrator that combined several behaviors were split into separate questions in 2011. Also, the wording of a question measuring public sexual harassment was changed from "harassed" to "verbally harassed." In addition, a question from 2010 asking about a perpetrator having fondled or grabbed the respondent's sexual body parts was modified to ask about a perpetrator having fondled, groped, grabbed, or touched the respondent in a way that made the respondent feel unsafe. One of the stalking items asked in 2010 was split into two items for 2011, and the order of the administration of stalking questions was changed between the 2010 and 2011 surveys so that questions about more severe stalking behaviors were asked first. This change in the ordering of items was made to set a better context for the stalking behaviors that might be perceived by respondents as less severe (e.g., unwanted calls and e-mail messages). These items were placed after the more severe stalking items to minimize reporting of these behaviors when they occurred outside of a stalking situation (e.g., harassment). Finally, intimate partner violence–related impact was calculated differently in 2011 than in 2010. In 2010, intimate partner violence–related impact was calculated among those who experienced rape, physical violence, or stalking whereas in 2011, intimate partner violence–related impact was calculated among those who experienced contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking. The NISVS survey protocol received approval from the Institutional Review Board of RTI International.


Results
Sexual Violence Victimization
Prevalence of Sexual Violence Victimization


In the United States, an estimated 19.3% of women (or >23 million women) have been raped during their lifetimes. Completed forced penetration was experienced by an estimated 11.5% of women. Nationally, an estimated 1.6% of women (or approximately 1.9 million women) were raped in the 12 months before taking the survey.


An estimated 1.7% of men (or almost 2.0 million men) were raped during their lifetimes; 0.7% of men experienced completed forced penetration. The case count for men reporting rape in the preceding 12 months was too small to produce a statistically reliable prevalence estimate.


An estimated 43.9% of women experienced sexual violence other than rape during their lifetimes, and an estimated 5.5% of women were victims of sexual violence other than rape in the 12 months preceding the survey. For men, an estimated 23.4% experienced sexual violence other than rape during their lifetimes, and 5.1% experienced sexual violence other than rape in the 12 months before completing the survey.
An estimated 0.6% of women (>700,000 women) were made to penetrate a perpetrator during their lifetimes. The case count for women reporting being made to penetrate a perpetrator in the preceding 12 months was too small to produce a statistically reliable prevalence estimate. For men, the lifetime prevalence of being made to penetrate a perpetrator was an estimated 6.7% (>7.6 million men), while an estimated 1.7% of men were made to penetrate a perpetrator in the 12 months preceding the survey. An estimated 12.5% of women experienced sexual coercion during their lifetimes. Sexual coercion was experienced by an estimated 2.0% of women in the 12 months before taking the survey. An estimated 5.8% of men experienced sexual coercion during their lifetimes while an estimated 1.3% of men experienced sexual coercion in the 12 months before taking the survey.


Approximately one in four women (27.3%) is estimated to have experienced some form of unwanted sexual contact during their lifetimes. In the 12 months preceding the survey, an estimated 2.2% of women experienced unwanted sexual contact. An estimated 10.8% of men experienced unwanted sexual contact during their lifetimes, with an estimated 1.6% of men having experienced unwanted sexual contact in the 12 months before taking the survey.


Approximately one in three women (32.1%) is estimated to have experienced some type of noncontact unwanted sexual experience during their lifetimes, and an estimated 3.4% of women experienced this in the 12 months before taking the survey. An estimated 13.3% of men experienced noncontact unwanted sexual experiences during their lifetimes, and an estimated 2.5% of men experienced this type of victimization in the previous 12 months.


Prevalence of Sexual Violence Victimization by Race/Ethnicity
In the United States, an estimated 32.3% of multiracial women, 27.5% of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 21.2% of non-Hispanic black women, 20.5% of non-Hispanic white women, and 13.6% of Hispanic women were raped during their lifetimes. The case counts of other racial/ethnic categories of women were too small to report statistically reliable estimates. Lifetime estimates of rape for men by race/ethnicity were also not statistically reliable for reporting because of a small case count, with one exception: an estimated 1.6% of non-Hispanic white men were raped during their lifetimes.


An estimated 64.1% of multiracial women, 55.0% of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 46.9% of non-Hispanic white women, and 38.2% of non-Hispanic black women experienced sexual violence other than rape during their lifetimes. In addition, an estimated 35.6% of Hispanic women and 31.9% of Asian or Pacific Islander women experienced sexual violence other than rape during their lifetimes.
Among men, an estimated 39.5% of multiracial men experienced sexual violence other than rape during their lifetimes. In addition, 26.6% of Hispanic men, 24.5% of American Indian/Alaska Native men, 24.4% of non-Hispanic black men, and 22.2% of non-Hispanic white men experienced sexual violence other than rape during their lifetimes, and an estimated 15.8% of Asian or Pacific Islander men experienced this type of sexual violence during their lifetimes.


Characteristics of Sexual Violence Perpetrators


For female rape victims, an estimated 99.0% had only male perpetrators. In addition, an estimated 94.7% of female victims of sexual violence other than rape had only male perpetrators. For male victims, the sex of the perpetrator varied by the type of sexual violence experienced. The majority of male rape victims (an estimated 79.3%) had only male perpetrators. For three of the other forms of sexual violence, a majority of male victims had only female perpetrators: being made to penetrate (an estimated 82.6%), sexual coercion (an estimated 80.0%), and unwanted sexual contact (an estimated 54.7%). For noncontact unwanted sexual experiences, nearly half of male victims (an estimated 46.0%) had only male perpetrators and an estimated 43.6% had only female perpetrators.


The majority of victims of all types of sexual violence knew their perpetrators. Almost half of female victims of rape (an estimated 46.7%) had at least one perpetrator who was an acquaintance, and an estimated 45.4% of female rape victims had at least one perpetrator who was an intimate partner . More than half (an estimated 58.4%) of women who experienced alcohol/drug facilitated penetration were victimized by an acquaintance. An estimated 44.9% of male victims of rape were raped by an acquaintance, and an estimated 29.0% of male victims of rape were raped by an intimate partner. The estimates for male victims raped by other types of perpetrators are not reported because the case counts were too small to calculate a reliable estimate.


For sexual violence other than rape of both women and men, the type of perpetrator varied by the form of sexual violence experienced. The majority of female victims of sexual coercion (an estimated 74.1%) had an intimate partner as a perpetrator, and nearly half of female victims of unwanted sexual contact (an estimated 47.2%) had an acquaintance as a perpetrator. About half of the female victims of noncontact unwanted sexual experiences had a stranger as a perpetrator (an estimated 49.3%).


Among men who were made to penetrate a perpetrator, an estimated 54.5% were made to penetrate an intimate partner and an estimated 43.0% were made to penetrate an acquaintance. The majority of male victims of sexual coercion (an estimated 69.5%) had an intimate partner as a perpetrator. Among male victims of unwanted sexual contact, about half (an estimated 51.8%) had an acquaintance as a perpetrator. Finally, among male victims of noncontact unwanted sexual violence, an estimated 39.2% had an acquaintance as a perpetrator, followed by an intimate partner (an estimated 30.9%), or a stranger (an estimated 30.9%).


Stalking Victimization


Prevalence of Stalking Victimization


In the United States, an estimated 15.2% of women (18.3 million women) have experienced stalking during their lifetimes that made them feel very fearful or made them believe that they or someone close to them would be harmed or killed. In addition, an estimated 4.2% of women (approximately 5.1 million women) were stalked in the 12 months before taking the survey.


Nationally, an estimated 5.7% of men (or nearly 6.5 million) have experienced stalking victimization during their lifetimes, while an estimated 2.1% of men (or 2.4 million) were stalked in the 12 months before taking the survey.


Prevalence of Stalking Victimization by Race/Ethnicity


An estimated 24.5% of American Indian/Alaska Native women experienced stalking during their lifetimes, and an estimated 22.4% of multiracial women were stalked during their lifetimes. An estimated 15.9% of non-Hispanic white women experienced stalking during their lifetimes, and the prevalence of stalking for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black women was an estimated 14.2% and 13.9%, respectively. The estimate for Asian or Pacific Islander women was not reported because the case count was too small to produce a reliable estimate.


An estimated 9.3% of multiracial men experienced stalking during their lifetimes, as did an estimated 9.1% of non-Hispanic black men, 8.2% of Hispanic men, and 4.7% of non-Hispanic white men. The estimates for the other racial/ethnic groups of men are not reported because case counts were too small to produce a reliable estimate.


Frequency of Stalking Acts Among Stalking Victims


A variety of tactics were used to stalk victims during their lifetimes. An estimated 61.7% of female stalking victims were approached, such as at their home or work; over half (an estimated 55.3%) received unwanted messages, such as text and voice messages; an estimated 54.5% received unwanted telephone calls, including hang-ups. In addition, nearly half (an estimated 49.7%) of female stalking victims were watched, followed, or spied on with a listening device, camera, or global positioning system (GPS) device.


An estimated 58.2% of male stalking victims received unwanted telephone calls, and an estimated 56.7% received unwanted messages. An estimated 47.7% of male stalking victims were approached by their perpetrator, and an estimated 32.2% were watched, followed, or spied on with a listening or other device.


Characteristics of Stalking Perpetrators


Among persons who were victims of stalking during their lifetimes, the sex of the perpetrator varied somewhat by the sex of the victim. Among female stalking victims, an estimated 88.3% were stalked by only male perpetrators; an estimated 7.1% had only female perpetrators. Among male stalking victims, almost half (an estimated 48.0%) were stalked by only male perpetrators while a similar proportion (an estimated 44.6%) were stalked by only female perpetrators.


Both female and male victims often identified their stalkers as persons whom they knew or with whom they had an intimate relationship. Among female stalking victims, an estimated 60.8% were stalked by a current or former intimate partner, nearly one-quarter (an estimated 24.9%) were stalked by an acquaintance, an estimated 16.2% were stalked by a stranger, and an estimated 6.2% were stalked by a family member . Among male stalking victims, an estimated 43.5% were stalked by an intimate partner, an estimated 31.9% by an acquaintance, an estimated 20.0% by a stranger, and an estimated 9.9% by a family member.


Intimate Partner Violence Victimization


Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization


The lifetime and 12-month prevalence of rape by an intimate partner for women was an estimated 8.8% and 0.8%, respectively. Nationally, an estimated 15.8% of women experienced other forms of sexual violence by an intimate partner during their lifetimes, while an estimated 2.1% of women experienced other forms of sexual violence by a partner in the 12 months before taking the survey. The lifetime prevalence of physical violence by an intimate partner was an estimated 31.5% among women and in the 12 months before taking the survey, an estimated 4.0% of women experienced some form of physical violence by an intimate partner. An estimated 22.3% of women experienced at least one act of severe physical violence by an intimate partner during their lifetimes. With respect to individual severe physical violence behaviors, being slammed against something was experienced by an estimated 15.4% of women, and being hit with a fist or something hard was experienced by 13.2% of women. In the 12 months before taking the survey, an estimated 2.3% of women experienced at least one form of severe physical violence by an intimate partner. The lifetime and 12-month prevalence of stalking by an intimate partner for women was an estimated 9.2% and 2.4%, respectively. Finally, an estimated 47.1% of women experienced at least one act of psychological aggression by an intimate partner during their lifetimes; an estimated 14.2% of women experienced some form of psychological aggression in the 12 months preceding the survey.


Nationally, an estimated 0.5% of men experienced rape by an intimate partner during their lifetimes. However, the case count for men reporting rape by an intimate partner in the preceding 12 months was too small to produce a statistically reliable prevalence estimate. An estimated 9.5% of men experienced other forms of sexual violence by an intimate partner during their lifetimes, while an estimated 2.1% of men experienced other forms of sexual violence by an intimate partner in the 12 months before taking the survey. The lifetime prevalence of physical violence by an intimate partner was an estimated 27.5% for men, and in the 12 months before taking the survey, an estimated 4.8% of men experienced some form of physical violence by an intimate partner. An estimated 14.0% of men experienced at least one act of severe physical violence by an intimate partner during their lifetimes. With respect to individual severe physical violence behaviors, being hit with a fist or something hard was experienced by an estimated 10.1% of men, and 4.6% of men have been kicked by an intimate partner. In the 12 months before taking the survey, an estimated 2.1% of men experienced at least one form of severe physical violence by an intimate partner. The lifetime and 12-month prevalence of stalking by an intimate partner for men was an estimated 2.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Finally, an estimated 46.5% of men experienced at least one act of psychological aggression by an intimate partner during their lifetimes; an estimated 18.0% of men experienced some form of psychological aggression in the 12 months preceding the survey.


Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization by Race/Ethnicity


Nationally, an estimated 11.4% of multiracial women, 9.6% of non-Hispanic white women, 8.8% of non-Hispanic black women, and 6.2% of Hispanic women were raped by an intimate partner during their lifetimes. The case counts for men reporting rape by an intimate partner during their lifetimes were too small to produce statistically reliable prevalence estimates by race/ethnicity.


An estimated 26.8% of multiracial women, 17.4% of non-Hispanic black women, 17.1% of non-Hispanic white women, and 9.9% of Hispanic women experienced sexual violence other than rape by an intimate partner during their lifetimes. The case counts of other female racial/ethnic groups (Asian or Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native) were too small to report statistically reliable estimates. In addition, an estimated 18.2% of multiracial men, 14.8% of non-Hispanic black men, 13.5% of Hispanic men, and 7.6% of non-Hispanic white men experienced sexual violence other than rape by an intimate partner at some point during their lifetimes. The case counts of other male racial/ethnic groups (Asian or Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native) were too small to report statistically reliable estimates.


An estimated 51.7% of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 51.3% of multiracial women, 41.2% of non-Hispanic black women, 30.5% of non-Hispanic white women, 29.7% of Hispanic women, and 15.3% of Asian or Pacific Islander women experienced physical violence by an intimate partner during their lifetimes. An estimated 43.0% of American Indian/Alaska Native men, 39.3% of multiracial men, 36.3% of non-Hispanic black men, 27.1% of Hispanic men, 26.6% of non-Hispanic white men, and 11.5% of Asian or Pacific Islander men experienced physical violence by an intimate partner during their lifetime.


An estimated 13.3% of multiracial women, 9.9% of non-Hispanic white women, 9.5% of non-Hispanic black women, and 6.8% of Hispanic women were stalked by an intimate partner during their lifetimes. The case counts of other female racial/ethnic groups (Asian or Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native) were too small to report statistically reliable estimates.


In addition, an estimated 1.7% of non-Hispanic white men were stalked by an intimate partner during their lifetimes. The case counts of all other male racial/ethnic groups were too small to report statistically reliable estimates.


Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence–Related Impact


An estimated 27.3% of women have experienced contact sexual violence (rape, being made to penetrate, sexual coercion, or unwanted sexual contact), physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner during their lifetimes and have experienced at least one measured negative impact related to these or other forms of violence (noncontact unwanted sexual experiences, psychological aggression, or control of reproductive or sexual health) experienced in that relationship . More specifically, an estimated 23.7% of women were fearful, 20.7% were concerned for their safety, 20.0% experienced one or more PTSD symptoms, 13.4% were physically injured, 6.9% needed medical care, 3.6% needed housing services, 3.3% needed victim advocate services, 8.8% needed legal services, 2.8% contacted a crisis hotline, 9.1% missed at least 1 day of work or school, 1.3% contracted a sexually transmitted infection, and 1.7% became pregnant as a result of the violence experienced by an intimate partner.


Nationally, an estimated 11.5% of men have experienced contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner during their lifetimes and have experienced at least one measured negative impact related to these or other forms of violence experienced in that relationship. More specifically, an estimated 6.9% of men were fearful, 5.2% were concerned for their safety, 5.2% experienced one or more PTSD symptoms, 3.5% were physically injured, 1.6% needed medical care, 1.0% needed housing services, 4.0% needed legal services, and 4.8% missed at least 1 day of work or school. The case counts for men needing victim advocacy services, having contacted a crisis hotline, or contracting a sexually transmitted infection as a result of these types of violence were too small to produce statistically reliable estimates.


Age of First Victimization
Completed Rape


Among female victims of completed rape (completed forced penetration and completed alcohol- or drug-facilitated penetration), this form of sexual violence was first experienced by an estimated 78.7% before age 25 years, by an estimated 40.4% before age 18 years (28.3% at ages 11–17 years and 12.1% at age ≤10 years), and by an estimated 38.3% at age 18–24 years . In addition, among female victims of completed rape, an estimated 15.2% first experienced this at age 25–34 years, an estimated 4.6% at age 35–44 years, and an estimated 1.5% at age ≥45 years. The case counts for men reporting lifetime completed rape were too small to produce statistically reliable estimates for all age categories.

Being Made to Penetrate a Perpetrator


Among males who were made to penetrate a perpetrator, this was experienced first by an estimated 71.0% before age 25 years, with an estimated 21.3% having first experienced this before age 18 years (18.6% at age 11–17 years) and an estimated 49.7% at age 18–24 years. In addition, among male victims who were made to penetrate a perpetrator, this was experienced first by an estimated 15.3% at age 25–34 years and by an estimated 7.9% at age 35–44 years. The case count for men reporting first being made to penetrate a perpetrator at age ≥45 years was too small to produce a statistically reliable estimate. In addition, the case counts for women reporting being made to penetrate a perpetrator during their lifetimes were too small to produce statistically reliable estimates for all age categories.


Stalking


Among female victims of stalking, an estimated 53.8% were first stalked before age 25 years, with an estimated 16.3% first experiencing this before age 18 years (13.5% at ages 11–17 years) and an estimated 37.5% at ages 18–24 years . In addition, among female victims of stalking, this was experienced first by an estimated 28.8% at ages 25–34 years, by an estimated 11.5% at ages 35–44 years, and by an estimated 5.9% at age ≥45 years.


Among male victims of stalking, an estimated 47.7% were first stalked before age 25 years, with an estimated 20.5% having first experienced stalking before age 18 years (16.2% at ages 11–17 years) and an estimated 27.2% having first experienced this at age 18–24 years . In addition, among male victims of stalking, this was experienced first by an estimated 21.3% at age 25–34 years, by an estimated 17.9% at age 35–44 years, and by an estimated 13.1% at age ≥45 years.


Intimate Partner Violence


Among female victims of contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner, an estimated 71.1% first experienced these or other forms of intimate partner violence before age 25 years, with an estimated 23.2% having first experienced this before age 18 years (23.1% at age 11–17 years) and an estimated 47.9% at age 18–24 years . In addition, among female victims of contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner, these or other forms of intimate partner violence were experienced first by an estimated 20.7% at age 25–34 years, by an estimated 5.9% at age 35–44 years, and by an estimated 2.3% at age ≥45 years.


Among male victims of contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner, an estimated 58.2% first experienced these or other forms of intimate partner violence before age 25 years, with an estimated 14.1% having first experienced this before age 18 years (14.0% at age 11–17 years) and an estimated 44.1% at age 18–24 years . In addition, among male victims of contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner, these or other forms of intimate partner violence were first experienced by an estimated 26.7% at age 25–34 years, by an estimated 10.4% at age 35–44 years, and by an estimated 4.7% at age ≥45 years.


Discussion


The results presented in this report indicate that a significant number and proportion of female and male U.S. adults have experienced sexual violence, stalking, or intimate partner violence during their lifetimes or in the 12 months preceding the 2011 survey. Because of the broad range of short- and long-term consequences associated with these forms of violence, the public health burden of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence is substantial.


The results provided in this report indicate that the burden of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence is not distributed evenly in the U.S. population. Consistent with previous studies, the results suggest that women, in particular, are impacted heavily during their lifetimes (11,12). However, the results indicate that many men also experience sexual violence, stalking and, in particular, physical violence by an intimate partner. Although there are relatively smaller differences in the overall prevalence of physical violence by an intimate partner when comparing women and men, there is greater differentiation between women and men in terms of the prevalence of negative intimate partner violence–related impact. This suggests the need to look beyond the overall prevalence estimates when comparing the total burden of men's and women's intimate partner violence victimization. Previous research indicates that characteristics (e.g., frequency, severity, and impact) of men's and women's intimate partner violence victimization differ in ways that might not be reflected in overall prevalence estimates (12). However, any focus on differences between men and women should not obscure the fact that nearly 16 million men have experienced some form of severe physical violence by an intimate partner during their lifetimes and >13 million men have experienced intimate partner violence during their lifetimes that resulted in a negative impact.


The results also suggest that certain racial/ethnic groups experience a comparatively higher burden. Although statistical testing was not undertaken, an examination of the pattern of lifetime prevalence estimates suggests that multiracial and American Indian/Alaska Native women experience elevated levels for most of the types of violence examined in this report. These findings are consistent with previous reports indicating that multiracial and American Indian/Alaska Native women are at greater risk for rape, stalking, and intimate partner violence (3,13). These findings underscore the importance of prevention efforts and services that address the needs of multiracial and American Indian/Alaska Native women. Although previous research has suggested explanations for elevated rates of violence among American Indian/Alaska Native women (e.g., elevated poverty, social and geographic isolation, and a higher likelihood of alcohol use by the perpetrator) (14), little is known about why multiracial women are at greater risk for these forms of violence. Research is needed to identify risk and protective factors for violence victimization among multiracial persons.


By definition, all victims of intimate partner violence knew their perpetrator; however, the majority of sexual violence and stalking victims also knew their perpetrators. Despite frequent depictions in the media of sexual violence and stalking perpetrated by strangers (15,16), strangers were reported as the perpetrator by less than one fourth of stalking victims and by less than one fourth of victims of each form of sexual violence except noncontact unwanted sexual experiences. For stalking and for all forms of sexual violence except noncontact unwanted sexual experiences, two frequently reported perpetrators were intimate partners and acquaintances. This pattern suggests that prevention efforts for sexual violence and stalking need to focus on preventing violent interactions between persons who are intimate or are known to each other in another capacity.


Female victims of sexual violence and stalking reported predominantly male perpetrators, whereas for male victims, the sex of the perpetrator varied by the specific form of violence examined. Male rape victims predominantly had male perpetrators, but other forms of sexual violence experienced by men either were perpetrated predominantly by women (i.e., being made to penetrate a perpetrator or sexual coercion) or were split more evenly among male and female perpetrators (i.e., unwanted sexual contact and noncontact unwanted sexual experiences). In addition, male stalking victims also had a more even mix of males and females who had perpetrated stalking against them. Prevention efforts should take into consideration that female sexual violence and stalking victimization is predominately perpetrated by men and that a substantial proportion of male sexual violence and stalking victimization (rape, unwanted sexual contact, noncontact unwanted sexual experiences, and stalking) also is perpetrated by men.


For each of the violence types assessed, ≥53.8% of all female victims and ≥47.7% of all male victims experienced their first victimizations before age 25 years, with many first experiencing victimization in childhood and adolescence. These findings suggest that primary prevention of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence should take place at an early age. CDC's approach to the primary prevention of violence is in keeping with this finding. Specifically, CDC supports the development of safe, stable, and nurturing relationships and environments for children as a precursor to healthy parent-child relationships; healthy peer relationships among adolescents; healthy dating relationships among adolescents before their first experience with dating and the engagement of bystanders to intervene before violence occurs. CDC also supports the development, evaluation, and widespread adoption of empirically supported teen dating violence prevention programs. For example, the school-based Safe Dates program, which focuses on enhancing conflict management skills and changing norms about dating violence, has been shown to prevent perpetration of physical and sexual violence as well as psychological aggression in teen dating relationships (17). When parental, peer, and dating relationships are influenced early in life, healthy relationship behaviors and patterns and healthy social environments can be promoted while these behaviors are relatively modifiable. In so doing, adolescents can be equipped with healthier behaviors to use in place of violence within adult relationships.

In addition to primary prevention efforts, secondary prevention is also important. The results suggest that a substantial number of women and men also have experienced a range of negative impacts as a result of the intimate partner violence they have experienced. Most notably, nearly 13.4% of women and 3.5% of men have been injured physically, and 9.1% of women and 4.8% of men have missed at least 1 day of work or school because of experiencing intimate partner violence. Previous research has established that in addition to these near-term impacts, those who experience intimate partner violence are at greater risk for a range of long-term health consequences (1,2). For the negative effects of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking to be mitigated, it is important to ensure that relevant services are available to victims. The findings in this report suggest that many adults are in need of these types of services as a result of intimate partner violence victimization. During their lifetimes 6.9% of women and 1.6% of men needed medical services, 8.8% of women and 4.0% of men needed legal services, and 3.6% of women and 1.0% of men needed housing services (e.g., shelters). Analyses of 2010 NISVS data suggest that nearly half of female victims and approximately two thirds of male victims who indicated a need for services did not receive any of the services needed as a result of intimate partner violence experienced during their lifetimes (12). Research is needed to examine the degree to which needed services are not being received and to determine whether any existing gap is attributable to services being unavailable, inaccessible, or inadequate, or to victims choosing not to use available services.


Limitations


The findings of this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, the overall response rate for the 2011 NISVS survey was relatively low (33.1%). However, the cooperation rate was high (83.5%), and multiple efforts were made to reduce the likelihood of nonresponse and noncoverage bias. These included a nonresponse follow-up in which randomly selected nonresponders were contacted again and offered an increased incentive for participation as well as the inclusion of a cellular telephone sample. Second, although NISVS captures a broad range of self-reported victimization experiences, it is likely that the estimates presented underestimate the prevalence of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence (18). Victims who are involved in violent relationships or who have recently experienced severe forms of violence might be less likely to participate in surveys or might not be willing to disclose their experiences because of unresolved emotional trauma or concern for their safety, among other reasons. Third, a telephone survey might be less likely to capture some populations that could be at higher risk for victimization (e.g., persons living in nursing homes, military bases, prisons, or shelters, or those who are homeless). Fourth, self-reported data are vulnerable to recall bias because respondents might believe that events occurred closer in time than they did in actuality (i.e., telescoping), and this type of bias might particularly affect 12-month prevalence estimates. Finally, follow-up questions were designed to reflect the victim's experience with each perpetrator across the victim's lifetime and there were limitations associated with how these questions were asked. Respondents were asked about the impact from any of the violence inflicted by each perpetrator. Therefore, the impact of specific intimate partner violence behaviors cannot be assessed. Also, because victims' reports of the age and relationship at the time any violence began with each perpetrator were used, it was not always possible to assess the age or relationship at the time specific types of intimate partner violence occurred.


Conclusion


Although progress has been made in efforts to prevent sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence, these forms of violence continue to exact a substantial toll upon U.S. adults. Further, it is clear that many of these forms of violence are first experienced by many in adolescence and young adulthood. This suggests the critical need for primary prevention to focus on promoting healthy relational behaviors and patterns that can be carried forward into adulthood. Continued surveillance of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence is needed to understand these public health problems better and to serve as a measuring stick by which the success of prevention efforts can be gauged.

 


TABLE 1. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of sexual violence victimization, by sex of victim — National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011

 Prevalence

Women

Men

%*

(95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims†

%*

(95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims†

Lifetime

Rape

19.3

(17.9–20.8)

23,305,000

1.7

(1.3–2.2)

1,971,000

Completed forced penetration

11.5

(10.3–12.7)

13,826,000

0.7

(0.5–1.1)

834,000

Attempted forced penetration

6.4

(5.6–7.4)

7,732,000

—§

Completed alcohol- or drug-facilitated penetration

9.3

(8.3–10.5)

11,276,000

1.1

(0.8–1.6)

1,308,000

Other sexual violence

43.9

(42.1–45.6)

52,958,000

23.4

(21.8–25.0)

26,590,000

Made to penetrate

0.6

(0.4–0.8)

703,000

6.7

(5.7–7.8)

7,610,000

Sexual coercion

12.5

(11.3–13.7)

15,045,000

5.8

(4.9–6.7)

6,558,000

Unwanted sexual contact

27.3

(25.8–28.9)

33,016,000

10.8

(9.6–12.0)

12,238,000

Noncontact unwanted sexual experiences

32.1

(30.5–33.8)

38,813,000

13.3

(12.1–14.7)

15,150,000

12-month

Rape

1.6

(1.1–2.2)

1,929,000

Completed forced penetration

Attempted forced penetration

Completed alcohol- or drug-facilitated penetration

1.0

(0.7–1.5)

1,213,000

Other sexual violence

5.5

(4.7–6.5)

6,687,000

5.1

(4.3–6.0)

5,797,000

Made to penetrate

1.7

(1.3–2.3)

1,921,000

Sexual coercion

2.0

(1.5–2.6)

2,389,000

1.3

(1.0–1.8)

1,495,000

Unwanted sexual contact

2.2

(1.7–2.9)

2,687,000

1.6

(1.2–2.1)

1,777,000

Noncontact unwanted sexual experiences

3.4

(2.7–4.1)

4,046,000

2.5

(2.0–3.1)

2,829,000

Abbreviation: CI = confidence interval.
* Percentages are weighted.
† Rounded to the nearest thousand.
§ Estimate is not reported; relative standard error >30% or cell size ≤20.

TABLE 2. Lifetime prevalence of sexual violence victimization, by sex and race/ethnicity* of victim — National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011

Women

Men

%†

(95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims§

%†

(95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims§

White, non-Hispanic

Rape

20.5

(18.8– 22.3)

16,475,000

1.6

(1.2–2.2)

1,232,000

Other sexual violence¶

46.9

(44.9–48.9)

37,661,000

22.2

(20.5–24.1)

16,846,000

Black, non-Hispanic

Rape

21.2

(17.2–25.9)

3,084,000

—**

Other sexual violence¶

38.2

(33.3–43.3)

5,555,000

24.4

(19.4–30.2)

3,094,000

Hispanic

Rape

13.6

(10.1–18.1)

2,204,000

Other sexual violence¶

35.6

(30.3–41.3)

5,771,000

26.6

(21.6–32.3)

4,348,000

American Indian/Alaska Native

Rape

27.5

(16.1–42.7)

Other sexual violence¶

55.0

(41.5–67.9)

452,000

24.5

(13.5–40.3)

Asian or Pacific Islander

Rape

Other sexual violence¶

31.9

(22.6–43.0)

1,924,000

15.8

(10.0–24.3)

842,000

Multiracial

 

Rape

32.3

(22.9– 43.3)

663,000

Other sexual violence¶

64.1

(52.5–74.2)

1,316,000

39.5

(30.2–49.5)

817,000

Abbreviation: CI = confidence interval.
* Race/ethnicity was self-identified. The American Indian or Alaska Native designation does not indicate being enrolled or affiliated with a tribe. Persons of Hispanic ethnicity can be of any race or combination of races.
† Percentages are weighted.
§ Rounded to the nearest thousand.
¶ Includes being made to penetrate a perpetrator, sexual coercion, unwanted sexual contact, and noncontact unwanted sexual experiences.
** Estimate is not reported; relative standard error >30% or cell size ≤20.

Abbreviation: CI = confidence interval.
* Relationship is based on victims' reports of their relationship at the time the perpetrator first committed any violence against them. Because of the possibility of multiple perpetrators, combined row percentages might exceed 100%.
† Includes immediate and extended family members.
§ Includes, for example, boss, supervisor, superior in command, teacher, professor, coach, clergy, doctor, therapist, and caregiver.
¶ Includes friends, neighbors, family friends, first date, someone briefly known, and persons not known well.
** Percentages are weighted.
†† Rounded to the nearest thousand.
§§ Estimate is not reported; relative standard error >30% or cell size ≤20.

TABLE 3. Prevalence of stalking victimization, by sex and race/ethnicity* of victim — National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011

Women

Men

%†

(95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims§

%†

(95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims§

All races/ethnicities (lifetime)

15.2

(13.9–16.6)

18,330,000

5.7

(4.7–6.8)

6,487,000

White, non-Hispanic

15.9

(14.4–17.5)

12,749,000

4.7

(3.9–5.8)

3,581,000

Black, non-Hispanic

13.9

(10.7–17.9)

2,020,000

9.1

(5.3–15.4)

1,159,000

Hispanic

14.2

(10.6–18.7)

2,295,000

8.2

(4.9–13.3)

1,342,000

American Indian/Alaska Native

24.5

(14.2–38.8)

—¶

Asian or Pacific Islander

Multiracial

22.4

(15.0–32.1)

461,000

9.3

(5.3–15.7)

192,000

All races/ethnicities (12-month)

4.2

(3.5–5.1)

5,094,000

2.1

(1.6–2.8)

2,435,000

Abbreviation: CI = confidence interval.
* Race/ethnicity was self-identified. The American Indian/Alaska Native designation does not indicate being enrolled or affiliated with a tribe. Persons of Hispanic ethnicity can be of any race or combination of races.
† Percentages are weighted.
§ Rounded to the nearest thousand.
¶ Estimate is not reported; relative standard error >30% or cell size ≤20.


* Relationship is based on victims' reports of their relationship at the time the perpetrator first committed any violence against them. Due to the possibility of multiple perpetrators, the combined percentages exceed 100%.
† Includes friends, neighbors, family friends, first date, someone briefly known, and persons not known well.
§ Includes immediate and extended family members.
Alternate Text: The figure shows lifetime reports of stalking among female and male victims by type of perpetrator, using data from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey conducted in the United States in 2011. Four types of perpetrators are shown in order of prevalence: intimate partner, acquaintance (which includes friends, neighbors, family friends, first date, someone briefly known, and persons not known well), stranger, and family member (which includes immediate and extended family members).

Women

Men

Lifetime

12-month

Lifetime

12-month

%*

(95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims†

%*

(95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims†

%*

(95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims†

%*

(95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims†

8.8

(7.8–9.8)

10,574,000

0.8

(0.5–1.2)

922,000

0.5

(0.3–0.8)

572,000

—§

5.6

(4.8–6.5)

6,770,000

2.8

(2.2–3.5)

3,368,000

3.8

(3.1–4.5)

4,558,000

0.5

(0.3–0.8)

618,000

15.8

(14.6–17.1)

19,082,000

2.1

(1.6–2.6)

2,476,000

9.5

(8.4–10.8)

10,828,000

2.1

(1.7–2.7)

2,442,000

0.3

(0.2–0.5)

374,000

3.6

(2.9–4.5)

4,151,000

0.8

(0.6–1.2)

962,000

9.2

(8.3–10.3)

11,156,000

1.5

(1.1–1.9)

1,752,000

4.0

(3.3–4.8)

4,554,000

0.9

(0.7–1.3)

1,044,000

6.4

(5.6–7.3)

7,711,000

0.6

(0.4–1.0)

776,000

2.4

(1.9–3.1)

2,771,000

8.5

(7.6–9.6)

10,311,000

0.9

(0.6–1.2)

1,043,000

4.1

(3.4–5.0)

4,686,000

0.8

(0.5–1.3)

929,000

31.5

(29.9–33.2)

38,028,000

4.0

(3.2–4.8)

4,774,000

27.5

(25.8–29.3)

31,331,000

4.8

(4.0–5.8)

5,452,000

29.7

(28.1–31.4)

35,872,000

3.7

(3.0–4.5)

4,447,000

25.5

(23.8–27.2)

28,992,000

4.4

(3.6–5.3)

4,983,000

18.9

(17.6–20.4)

22,864,000

1.7

(1.2–2.3)

2,056,000

19.5

(18.0–21.1)

22,216,000

2.7

(2.1–3.5)

3,072,000

27.3

(25.7–28.9)

32,955,000

3.1

(2.5–3.9)

3,736,000

18.3

(16.9–19.9)

20,849,000

3.2

(2.6–4.0)

3,641,000

22.3

(20.8–23.9)

26,928,000

2.3

(1.8–2.9)

2,752,000

14.0

(12.7–15.5)

15,985,000

2.1

(1.6–2.7)

2,374,000

9.4

(8.4–10.6)

11,397,000

0.9

(0.6–1.3)

1,088,000

2.6

(2.1–3.3)

3,014,000

13.2

(12.0–14.4)

15,881,000

1.2

(0.8–1.8)

1,471,000

10.1

(9.0–11.4)

11,506,000

1.5

(1.1–2.1)

1,695,000

6.7

(5.8–7.6)

8,033,000

0.4

(0.2–0.7)

494,000

4.6

(3.8–5.4)

5,190,000

0.5

(0.3–0.8)

555,000

15.4

(14.2–16.8)

18,638,000

1.3

(1.0–1.8)

1,614,000

2.5

(2.0–3.1)

2,836,000

0.4

(0.2–0.7)

455,000

9.2

(8.2–10.3)

11,120,000

0.7

(0.5–1.2)

896,000

0.7

(0.5–1.1)

814,000

10.5

(9.5–11.7)

12,719,000

0.7

(0.4–1.0)

795,000

2.3

(1.8–3.0)

2,654,000

1.2

(0.8–1.7)

1,423,000

0.3

(0.2–0.6)

384,000

4.2

(3.5–5.0)

5,101,000

2.3

(1.8–3.0)

2,661,000

9.2

(8.2–10.3)

11,149,000

2.4

(1.9–3.0)

2,883,000

2.5

(1.9–3.3)

2,822,000

0.8

(0.6–1.2)

940,000

47.1

(45.3–48.8)

56,807,000

14.2

(12.9–15.5)

17,091,000

46.5

(44.6–48.4)

52,937,000

18.0

(16.5–19.6)

20,471,000

39.0

(37.3–40.8)

47,118,000

9.7

(8.6–10.8)

11,677,000

31.0

(29.3–32.8)

35,330,000

9.1

(8.1–10.2)

10,314,000

39.9

(38.2–41.6)

48,140,000

10.4

(9.3–11.6)

12,552,000

40.4

(38.5–42.3)

45,964,000

15.4

(14.0–17.0)

17,571,000

27.3

(25.8–28.9)

32,996,000

NA

NA

NA

11.5

(10.3–12.8)

13,080,000

NA

NA

NA

Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval; NA = not assessed.
* Percentages are weighted.
† Rounded to the nearest thousand.
§ Estimate not reported; relative standard error >30% or cell size ≤20.
¶ Psychological aggression includes expressive aggression (such as name calling, or insulting or humiliating an intimate partner) and coercive control, which includes behaviors that are intended to monitor, control, or threaten an intimate partner.
** Contact sexual violence by an intimate partner includes rape, being made to penetrate a perpetrator, sexual coercion, and unwanted sexual contact perpetrated by an intimate partner.
†† Includes experiencing any of the following: being fearful, concerned for safety, any post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, injury, need for medical care, need for housing services, need for victim advocate services, need for legal services, missed at least 1 day of work or school, and contacting a crisis hotline. For those who reported being raped, it also includes having contracted a sexually transmitted infection or having become pregnant. Intimate partner violence–related impact questions were assessed in relation to specific perpetrators, without regard to the time period in which they occurred, and asked in relation to any form of intimate partner violence experienced (sexual violence, physical violence, stalking, expressive aggression, coercive control, and control of reproductive or sexual health) in that relationship. By definition, all stalking incidents result in impact because the definition of stalking requires the experience of fear or concern for safety.

TABLE5. Lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence, by race/ethnicity* and sex of victim — National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011

Hispanic

Black, non-Hispanic

White, non-Hispanic

Asian or Pacific Islander

American Indian/Alaska Native

Multiracial

Women

Rape

Weighted % (95% CI)

6.2 (4.2–9.2)

8.8 (6.3–12.2)

9.6 (8.4–10.9)

—†

11.4 (6.9–18.2)

Estimated no. of victims§

1,011,000

1,286,000

7,730,000

234,000

Other sexual violence

Weighted % (95% CI)

9.9 (7.2–13.4)

17.4 (13.8–21.8)

17.1 (15.6–18.7)

26.8 (17.8–38.1)

Estimated no. of victims§

1,603,000

2,536,000

13,710,000

550,000

Physical violence

Weighted % (95% CI)

29.7 (24.9–35.1)

41.2 (36.1–46.6)

30.5 (28.6–32.4)

15.3 (8.9–24.9)

51.7 (38.1–65.0)

51.3 (40.2–62.3)

Estimated no. of victims§

4,819,000

5,996,000

24,469,000

921,000

424,000

1,055,000

Stalking

Weighted % (95% CI)

6.8 (4.7–9.9)

9.5 (6.9–13.0)

9.9 (8.6–11.3)

13.3 (7.7–21.8)

Estimated no. of victims§

1,105,000

1,386,000

7,935,000

272,000

Psychological aggression

Weighted % (95% CI)

43.9 (38.3–49.6)

53.8 (48.5–59.0)

47.2 (45.2–49.2)

29.8 (20.5–41.1)

63.8 (50.4–75.3)

61.1 (49.7–71.5)

Estimated no. of victims§

7,115,000

7,819,000

37,888,000

1,797,000

523,000

1,256,000

Contact sexual violence,¶ physical violence, or stalking with intimate partner violence-related impact**

Weighted % (95% CI)

24.2 (19.7–29.3)

31.8 (26.9–37.2)

28.0 (26.1–29.8)

42.4 (29.4–56.5)

43.1 (32.4–54.6)

Estimated no. of victims§

3,918,000

4,627,000

22,444,000

348,000

886,000

Men

Rape

Weighted % (95% CI)

Estimated no. of victims§

Other sexual violence

Weighted % (95% CI)

13.5 (9.8–18.2)

14.8 (10.8–19.9)

7.6 (6.5–8.9)

18.2 (11.7–27.2)

Estimated no. of victims§

2,204,000

1,878,000

5,777,000

377,000

Physical violence

Weighted % (95% CI)

27.1 (22.0–32.8)

36.3 (30.0–43.1)

26.6 (24.8–28.6)

11.5 (6.8–19.0)

43.0 (27.4–60.1)

39.3 (30.4–49.0)

Estimated no. of victims§

4,428,000

4,603,000

20,190,000

612,000

335,000

814,000

Stalking

Weighted % (95% CI)

1.7 (1.3–2.3)

Estimated no. of victims§

1,279,000

Psychological aggression

Weighted % (95% CI)

50.9 (44.8–57.1)

56.1 (49.5–62.4)

44.8 (42.7–46.9)

26.6 (18.9–36.2)

47.2 (31.1–64.0)

64.2 (53.6–73.5)

Estimated no. of victims§

8,333,000

7,110,000

33,959,000

1,415,000

368,000

1,329,000

Contact sexual violence,¶ physical violence, or stalking with intimate partner violence-related impact**

Weighted % (95% CI)

11.2 (8.1–15.3)

16.8 (11.9–23.2)

10.7 (9.4–12.1)

22.2 (15.1–31.2)

Estimated no. of victims§

1,835,000

2,128,000

8,074,000

459,000

Abbreviation: CI = confidence interval.
* Race/ethnicity was self-identified. The American Indian/Alaska Native designation does not indicate being enrolled or affiliated with a tribe. Persons of Hispanic ethnicity can be of any race or combination of races.
† Estimate is not reported; relative standard error >30% or cell size ≤20.
§ Rounded to the nearest thousand.
¶ Contact sexual violence by an intimate partner includes rape, being made to penetrate a perpetrator, sexual coercion, and unwanted sexual contact perpetrated by an intimate partner.
** Includes experiencing any of the following: being fearful, concerned for safety, any post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, injury, need for medical care, need for housing services, need for victim advocate services, need for legal services, missed at least 1 day of work or school, and contacting a crisis hotline. For those who reported being raped, it also includes having contracted a sexually transmitted infection or having become pregnant. Intimate partner violence–related impact questions were assessed in relation to specific perpetrators, without regard to the time period in which they occurred, and asked in relation to any form of intimate partner violence experienced (sexual violence, physical violence, stalking, expressive aggression, coercive control, and control of reproductive or sexual health) in that relationship. By definition, all stalking incidents result in impact because the definition of stalking requires the experience of fear or concern for safety.


Abbreviations: IPV = intimate partner violence; NA = not applicable; PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder.
* Includes rape, being made to penetrate a perpetrator, sexual coercion, and unwanted sexual contact perpetrated by an intimate partner.
† Includes experiencing any of the following: being fearful, concerned for safety, any PTSD symptoms, injury, need for medical care, need for housing services, need for victim advocate services, need for legal services, missed at least 1 day of work or school, and contacting a crisis hotline. For those who reported being raped, it also includes having contracted a sexually transmitted infection or having become pregnant. IPV-related impact questions were assessed in relation to specific perpetrators, without regard to the time period in which they occurred, and asked in relation to any form of intimate partner violence experienced (sexual violence, physical violence, stalking, expressive aggression, coercive control, and control of reproductive or sexual health) in that relationship; 12-month prevalence of IPV-related impact was not assessed. By definition, all stalking incidents result in impact because the definition of stalking requires the experience of fear or concern for safety.
§ Includes had nightmares; tried not to think about or avoided being reminded of; felt constantly on guard, watchful, or easily startled; and felt numb or detached. Asked only of victims who reported being fearful or concerned for their safety in relation to violence experienced by an individual perpetrator.
¶ Estimate not reported; relative standard error >30% or cell size ≤20.
** Asked only of women who reported rape by an intimate partner.
Alternate Text: The figure shows lifetime prevalence of contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner with intimate partner violence-related impact by sex, using data from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey conducted in the United States during 2011. Sexual violence includes rape, being made to penetrate a perpetrator, sexual coercion, and unwanted sexual contact perpetrated by an intimate partner. Any reported intimate partner violence-related impact includes experiencing any of the following: being fearful, concerned for safety, any post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, injury, need for medical care, need for housing services, need for victim advocate services, need for legal services, missed at least 1 day of work or school, and contacting a crisis hotline. For those who reported being raped, it also includes having contracted a sexually transmitted infection or having become pregnant. Intimate partner violence -related impact questions were assessed in relation to specific perpetrators, without regard to the time period in which they occurred, and asked in relation to any form of intimate partner violence experienced (sexual violence, physical violence, stalking, expressive aggression, coercive control, and control of reproductive or sexual health) in that relationship; 12-month prevalence of intimate partner violence-related impact was not assessed. By definition, all stalking incidents result in impact because the definition of stalking requires the experience of fear or concern for safety. Any post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms includes had nightmares; tried not to think about or avoided being reminded of; felt constantly on guard, watchful, or easily startled; and felt numb or detached. This question was asked only of victims who reported being fearful or concerned for their safety in relation to violence experienced by an individual perpetrator.
* Includes completed forced penetration and completed alcohol/drug-facilitated penetration but not attempted forced penetration.
† Represents the age at time of first experience of intimate partner violence among women who experienced contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner. Includes physical violence, all forms of sexual violence, stalking, psychological aggression, and control of reproductive or sexual health. Contact sexual violence by an intimate partner includes rape, being made to penetrate a perpetrator, sexual coercion, or unwanted sexual contact perpetrated by an intimate partner.
Alternate Text: The figure shows the age at the time of first victimization among female victims by type of victimization, using data from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey conducted in the United States during 2011. Three types of victimization are reported: completed rape (which includes completed forced penetration and completed alcohol/drug-facilitated penetration but not attempted forced penetration), stalking, and intimate partner violence (which includes physical violence, all forms of sexual violence, stalking, psychological aggression, and control of reproductive or sexual health).
* Estimate not reported; relative standard error >30% or cell size ≤20.
† Represents the age at time of first experience of intimate partner violence among men who experienced contact sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner. Includes physical violence, all forms of sexual violence, stalking, psychological aggression, and control of reproductive or sexual health. Contact sexual violence by an intimate partner includes rape, being made to penetrate a perpetrator, sexual coercion, or unwanted sexual contact perpetrated by an intimate partner.
Alternate Text: The figure shows the age at the time of first victimization among male victims by type of victimization, using data from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey conducted in the United States during 2011. Three types of victimization are reported: made to penetrate, stalking, and intimate partner violence (which includes physical violence, all forms of sexual violence, stalking, psychological aggression, and control of reproductive or sexual health).

Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not constitute or imply endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC is not responsible for the content of pages found at these sites. URL addresses listed in MMWR were current as of the date of publication.

Training Professionals in the Primary Prevention of Sexual and Intimate
Partner Violence: A Planning Guide
 
Training Professionals in the Primary Prevention of Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence: A Planning Guide is a publication of the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Executive Summary

Sexual violence and intimate partner violence are complex, multifaceted issues that affect all sectors of our communities. Preventing sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence requires a comprehensive approach involving many individuals, organizations, and sectors. We know from our experience with other public health issues that primary prevention strategies that take place before violence occurs can work (CDC, 2004).


An effective, comprehensive program to prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence takes a multitude of approaches, one of which is training professionals to engage in sexual violence prevention and/or intimate partner prevention. This Guide describes how to develop, implement, and evaluate a training process, taking into account your available level of resources. Additionally, this training process emphasizes turning awareness and knowledge into mastered skills and practices to prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence by:

1.      Teaching based on organizational context.    
2.      Providing opportunities for skill development through participatory learning.
3.      Following up to assess progress and determine level of mastery.
The Guide is intended for use by state-level entities providing training to community based organizations (CBOs) or to other state-level entities as well as for CBOs providing training within their own organizations or to other professionals in their communities. The Guide can help plan, deliver, and evaluate trainings whether you initiate the trainings yourself or are asked by others to provide trainings.

Highlights of the Planning Guide’s Content

The Guide’s content is divided into three stages:
•       Start a Training Plan: The Basic Elements
•       Refine and Tailor Your Training Plans
•       Prepare for Evaluation and Follow-up

When you start developing your training plan, the first step is to state clearly why you want or need to do training in the first place and then develop and tailor trainings in partnership with the professionals you plan to train to address the identified needs or problems. The issues, needs, or problems you wish to address will shape the goals and desired outcomes of your training plan. Your goals and outcomes will describe the changes you expect to see in the professionals being trained as you try to increase both knowledge and skills in order to prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence.

Ideally, everyone has a role in preventing sexual and/or intimate partner violence, but training takes a significant investment of time and resources. The best use of your resources will be to start by training those who seem ready or with whom you already have relationships. You may also strategically want to train those you believe can be change agents or who show existing organizational support for your primary prevention efforts.

Once you have decided whom you want to train, invite some of those professionals to help you shape the content and delivery of your trainings. This early involvement by a small group can help ensure your plans are relevant for all your participants. Invite professionals from different cultures, organizations, and communities, as well as from different generations, when appropriate. Participants can help you develop and deliver trainings that are culturally competent.

To make trainings relevant, you will need to consider both the organizational context in which professionals work as well as their individual readiness and level of knowledge. Understanding organizational context will help you address ways professionals can better apply their new skills. Factoring in their readiness helps address learning needs, beliefs about challenges and barriers related to sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence, and professionals’ reasons for participating in trainings. Regardless of individual and organizational issues, your trainings will be grounded in the same core content, which will include understanding what constitutes sexual and intimate partner violence, strategies and skills that support preventing sexual and intimate partner violence from occurring in the first place (primary prevention), and what increases risk and protects against perpetration and victimization. It is also important to include in your trainings how to respond to disclosures of abuse.
Tailoring trainings to the needs of your professionals also means being realistic about kinds of resources you have available to develop and deliver the trainings as well as publicize and market them. Whether you select trainers from inside or outside your organization, you need individuals who understand the issues at hand and reflect the diversity of your participants in experience, profession, position, and cultural backgrounds. You will also need resources to conduct some level of evaluation of your trainings to ensure your effectiveness as well as follow-up to provide ongoing support for those you train.

As you move into refining and tailoring your training plans before actually delivering them, use what you have learned about different groups of professionals to tailor the core content to match their unique needs. You can use what you know about different groups of professionals and their constituencies to help tailor trainings in culturally relevant ways. This validates and uses the expertise of the participants while helping them see how they can apply what they know in ways that are meaningful for their clients.

To increase the effectiveness of your trainings, you will need to first understand how adults learn best and incorporate some of these strategies into your work. Adults have special needs and requirements as learners that differ from those of children and teens (Lieb, 1991). Adults retain more when they can learn through a combination of seeing, hearing, saying, and doing. They need to feel autonomous and self-directed in learning situations, preferring educational environments that deliver practical, goal-oriented knowledge that seems immediately relevant to their experience (Knowles, 1998).

To be effective and relevant to diverse groups of participants, training design, content, and delivery all need to be done with cultural competency. This is different than talking to groups about cultural competency. This Guide describes an approach to help you move beyond simply trying to increase awareness of cultural issues; rather, you want demonstrate your organization’s full engagement and integration of diverse perspectives. Working with cultural competence involves changing your behavior and is an ongoing, daily, evolving process. Training with cultural competence assumes you will actively engage participants in learning how to change their behavior as well.

Once you have completed your plans and prepare to deliver your trainings, you want to:


•       Review and finalize the training curriculum in consultation with the workgroup of professionals you invited to advise you.
•       Verify the availability of projected resources and that they will be sufficient to implement your training plans.
•       Finalize your logic model if you are using one.
•       Prepare and package curriculum and materials, including a training agenda with adequate breaks, PowerPoint® presentations, and printed handouts collated into binders.
•       Schedule trainings.
•       Book and prepare training locations.
•       Communicate information to participants
Once the trainings have been delivered, you can prepare for evaluation and follow-up. This involves trying to determine, as your resources will allow, whether your training efforts are making a difference as well as following up with participants to help them keep their efforts going.

Conduct both a process evaluation to determine the delivery quality of your trainings and an outcome evaluation to measure the impact of your training including whether there have been actual changes in behaviors. Overall, you will want to measure changes in the following key areas:

•       Knowledge: how well participants understand the concepts presented.
•       Attitude: how participants think or feel or what they believe.
•       Skills: participants’ ability to behave in certain ways.
•       Organizational change: how the original context assessed earlier on in this process has changed to pave the way for needed changes in the workplace.


As professionals go back to their workplaces and start to implement the new skills you taught them, they will inevitably encounter barriers and distractions. Research has shown that follow-up activities or “boosters” are important for increasing the likelihood that new knowledge and skills will be put into practice.

Although there is no formula for follow-up activities, we recommend you develop follow-up plans, as resources allow, that do the following:
•       Provide technical assistance after training
•       Assess and support organizational integration
•       Consider mentoring, coaching, trainer “on call,” and/or practicum
•       Use ongoing training for incremental learning and to reinforce material
•       Encourage participants to go back and share the impact of the training on their work
•       Use follow-up to inform training evaluation

Incorporating follow-up activities appropriate for the groups being trained will help you continue to guide professionals toward more meaningful sexual and/or intimate partner violence prevention work as well as allow you to maintain important relationships within the community to help strengthen your work. Finally, thinking about ways to sustain your prevention work and the work of your community partners early on in your training plan development will help you wisely use the resources you have now and develop ways of supporting your training plans in the future.

What is in the Guide

The Planning Guide describes important concepts and strategies for developing, implementing, and evaluating your prevention training efforts. The Guide’s content is designed to help you quickly assess what you may need to tailor individual trainings to different groups of professionals. It provides definitions of sexual violence and intimate partner violence on which the Guide’s contents are based. The Guide also includes a fictional case study as well as real-life examples to illustrate theory put into practice.

In addition to providing step-by-step guidance on all the tasks necessary to your work, the Guide includes:
•       Tip sheets: Ideas and additional information to expand your knowledge.
•       Worksheets: Blank worksheets to help you build the details of your plans. Filled-in samples of some worksheets using the case study are also provided to illustrate the work.
•       Checklists: A few simple checklists to help you stay on top of recommended tasks.
•       Resources: Where to find additional, useful resources to learn more about topics.
Unless otherwise noted throughout the guide, the tools and resources listed above are gathered together in an Appendix that can be found at the end of the Guide.

 
Introduction: Why Train?
 
Sexual violence and intimate partner violence are complex, multifaceted issues that affect all sectors of our communities. Preventing sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence requires a broad-based, multi-system, comprehensive approach involving a wide array of individuals, groups, and agencies representing many disciplines and areas of expertise (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2004).

Primary prevention efforts are approaches that take place before violence occurs to prevent initial perpetration or victimization. We know from our experience with other public health issues that primary prevention strategies work (CDC, 2004).

An effective, comprehensive program to prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence takes a multitude of approaches including mobilizing communities around sexual violence and/ or intimate partner violence prevention and building and/or joining well-organized, broad-based coalitions that can more effectively create change in communities. Other essential activities are implementing strategies that promote positive social norms among youth, families, adults, and community institutions, and developing and implementing public and organizational policies aimed at preventing sexual violence or intimate partner violence.

Another key approach is training professionals to engage in sexual violence prevention and/or intimate partner prevention. Practitioners doing sexual violence prevention or intimate partner violence prevention work do not have enough resources, time, or avenues to reach everyone. However, professionals in other fields can influence risk and protective factors for sexual violence and/ or intimate partner violence within their own spheres of influence. Training those professionals to incorporate intimate partner violence and/or sexual violence prevention into their existing work can dramatically increase the breadth of your impact.

Training may also provide opportunities to help expand community efforts and collective responsibility for preventing sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence. Training also allows you and the professionals with whom you will work ways to identify methods and opportunities for integrating and institutionalizing sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence prevention as organizational priorities.

There are numerous examples throughout this guide of how incorporating sexual violence and intimate partner violence prevention into the existing work of a wide range of professionals in your community can help increase your collective impact.

Definitions of sexual violence and intimate partner violence
For this training guide, the concise definitions of sexual violence and intimate partner violence are as follows:

Sexual violence (SV) includes nonconsensual completed or attempted penetration, nonconsensual non-penetrative sexual contact, or non-contact acts such as verbal sexual harassment, by any perpetrator. This definition includes incidents when the victim is unable to consent (e.g., due to age or illness) or unable to refuse (e.g. due to physical violence or threats) (Basile & Saltman, 2002).

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is abuse that occurs between two people in a close relationship. The term “intimate partner” includes current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV exists along a continuum from a single episode of violence to ongoing battering. IPV includes four types of behavior:

•       Physical violence is when a person hurts or tries to hurt a partner by hitting, kicking, burning, or other physical force
•       Sexual violence is forcing a partner to take part in a sex act when the partner does not consent
•       Threats of physical or sexual violence include the use of words, gestures, weapons, or other means to communicate the intent to cause harm
•       Emotional abuse is threatening a partner or his or her possessions or loved ones, or harming a partner’s sense of self-worth. Examples are stalking, name-calling, intimidation, or not letting a partner see friends and family (Saltman, Fanslow, McMahon and Shelly, 2002). 

What training means
We define training as a process for turning awareness and knowledge into mastered skills and practices to prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence by:
1. Teaching based on organizational context.
2. Providing opportunities for skill development through participatory learning.
3. Following up to assess progress and determine level of mastery.
Training involves more than simply imparting knowledge. It should also help practitioners develop skills and shift the way they work. To develop useful training, you must first understand adult learning principles and learning styles. We believe teaching based on organizational context is key because it provides the support necessary to help people more easily and effectively put to use what they learn from you. By understanding the daily contexts in which your trainees work, you can then demonstrate how professionals can practically implement the skills and strategies you teach. Follow-up activities after the training is completed will also help your trainees sustain what they have learned and will increase the likelihood your training will strengthen community-wide sexual violence prevention efforts. We think that the training you provide, coupled with organizational support as well as follow up from you once the training is completed, will all combine to increase the chances your trainings will successfully strengthen community-wide intimate partner violence and/or sexual violence prevention efforts.

Who should use the Guide
The intended audiences for this Guide are:
•       State-level entities (e.g. state domestic violence and sexual assault coalitions, state health departments) providing training to community based organizations (CBOs) or to other state-level entities.
•       Community Based Organizations or CBOs (e.g. rape crisis centers, domestic violence programs) providing training within their own organizations or to other professionals in their communities.

This document can help you plan, deliver, and evaluate trainings whether you initiate the trainings yourself or are asked by others to provide trainings. We recommend your trainings link to your organization’s prevention goals and/or state and local prevention plans. You may also want to look for logical ways to link your training efforts to other comprehensive prevention efforts in your community.

We are not asking you to develop an entire community-based plan, nor do you need to have a training activity for every goal in your prevention plan if you have one. We encourage you to look for a few key, logical links between your prevention and training plans. Integrate training into your ongoing work, rather than viewing training as an “add-on” to everything else you are trying to do.

What is in the Guide

This Planning Guide describes important concepts and strategies for developing, implementing, and evaluating your prevention training efforts. It also provides tip sheets, worksheets, and checklists to help you quickly assess what you may need to tailor individual trainings to different groups of professionals. Most of these materials are found in the Appendix (starting on page 51). All resources may be copied as needed as you tailor individual trainings.

Within the instructive sections of the guide, we have included real-life examples, as well as a fictional case study, to illustrate theory put into practice. You will also find tips on where to find additional, useful resources if you want to learn more about various topics.

We designed this Guide to be as comprehensive as is practical. We recognie, however, that some organizations lack the resources or capacity to carry out all of the steps recommended. Avoid taking an “all or nothing” approach; rather, do as many steps as possible. Read through the Guide to realistically determine what you can and cannot do, then develop your training plans accordingly. Keep in mind that once you identify certain fundamental aspects of your plans, such as core content, they will inform everything you do no matter who you train. Except for periodic fine-tuning, once you have developed those parts of your plan, you will not need to address them again.
Learn more: We did not intend this guide to be a primer on sexual violence, intimate partner violence, public health, or the primary prevention of violence against women. Take a look at the following resources if you need more information:

•       Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control—www.cdc.gov/ncipc
•       National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women–www.vawnet.org
•       National Sexual Violence Resource Center—www.nsvrc.org
•       Prevention Institute—www.preventioninstitute.org
•       Violence Against Women Prevention Partnership—www.preventconnect.org

Fictional Case Study: The Center for Community Peace
To illustrate how the instructions and suggestions in this guide might be implemented, we have created a fictional case study of the Center for Community Peace. Throughout the Guide, we use the center’s story to illustrate examples of how an organization moves through the steps of planning, delivering, and evaluating its training plan.

 

While the center is fictional—as are all persons, businesses, and agencies named—we believe it is representative of the myriad agencies and organizations working to better their communities. Before moving forward, take a few minutes to get to know the center, its staff, its values, and the people it serves. Perhaps you will see some similarities with your own organization.

The Center

The Center for Community Peace is a community center in a suburb of a metropolitan area in the United States. The center receives a variety of funding to cover its operating expenses, including federal, state, and local grants, as well as private and in-kind donations.

Mission

The center offers programs and services that empower and inspire all generations and institutions in the community to work together to promote and practice peace.
It facilitates positive changes in individuals, families, and communities by providing:
•       Comprehensive education
•       Counseling services for social, emergency, and financial problems
•       Referrals to agency partners when appropriate
Key values
The center:
•       Values client diversity by delivering expert, innovative approaches to life’s challenges within the context of each client’s cultural experience.
•       Ensures no one is refused services because of financial hardship or inability to pay.
Staff and services
The center has nine paid staff members:
•       Reynaldo Torres, PhD—Executive Director and CEO
•       Lorinda Hobart—Vice President, Human Resources, Finance, and Administration
•       Lois Philips, MD—Vice President, Clinical and Health Services
•       Bobby Ming, LCSW—Director, Youth Programs
•       Odette Harrison, RN—Senior Clinical Advisor and Practitioner
•       Hani Littlefoot, LCSW—Certified Sexual Assault Counselor and Mental Health Services Practitioner
•       Vivian Bosley, BSW, LPC—Community Outreach and Volunteer Coordinator
•       Shivany Singh, MS—Head Start and Early Childhood Coordinator
•       Audrey McMaster, BA—Development Manager and Office Assistant
•       Josiah Stevens, PhD—Director of Program Evaluation and Improvement
The center provides community services and educational programs through a variety of local youth-serving organizations (e.g., Big Brothers Big Sisters), as part of existing programs (e.g., after-school tutoring and sports, alcohol-free teen nights, and related parties), and through partner programs. Such services include:
•       Emergency shelter and low-income housing
•       Parenting and nutrition classes
•       Food assistance
•       Meals on Wheels
•       Drug abuse counseling
•       GED preparation
•       Job training
•       Credit counseling, financial literacy, and budget training
•       Sexual assault crisis counseling
•       Pregnancy counseling
•       Child sexual abuse, sexual assault, and dating violence prevention

Key Demographics
The center is located in a suburban area of a major metropolitan region with the following demographics:
•       Sex: males 46.5%, females 53.5%
•       Median age: 30 (local), 33.4 (state)
•       Estimated median household income: $37,300 (local), $45,604 (state)
•       Racial composite statistics:
o       Black 38.2% 
o       White, non-Hispanic 28.8% 
o       Hispanic 14.6%
o       Two or more races 7.4%
o       Asian Indian 4.5%
o       Other Asian 2.7% 
o       American Indian 2.3%
o       Other race 1.5%
Community partnerships
In addition to its regular service offerings, the center participates in a local positive youth development coalition. Members of the coalition include:
•       Youth from middle and high school teen center governing boards
•       Center staff
•       Dachel Coleman, Executive Director, The Urban League
•       Stephanie Pearson, MA, PCC, Program Director, ARTScape
•       Herman Witherspoon, Outreach Director, YMCA
•       Linda Smithers, MD, CEO, YWCA
•       Salvatore Sandroni, PC, Director, County Court-Appointed Special Advocates (CASA)
•       Aisha Taylor, Director, Families First
•       Lorinda Hernandes, RN, LCSW, Regional Director, Planned Parenthood
•       Amy adek, Coordinator, Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)
•       Reverend Jane Evans, President of community interfaith coalition
•       Law-enforcement officials:
o       Detective Anna Warren, Special Victims Unit
o       Officer Curtis Wilson, Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) officer
•       Local parents and guardians:
o       Arlena and Alvin Foster 
o       Maybelle Young
o       Jorge Chave
•       Mark Karakas, Board Member, Chamber of Commerce
•       Maria Rui, staff writer, Daily Reporter
 
 
Start a Training Plan: The Basic Elements

The planning steps in this document should look a lot like other planning processes with which you are already familiar. Taking time to develop the basic elements of a training plan will increase the likelihood of success in helping people learn new skills, change the way they work, and, ultimately, institutionalie practice changes. It will also help you prioritie where you want to focus your resources, including staff, money, and time.
In the next section of the Guide, we will go over the basic elements we think are important to consider as you start your training plan, including:

•       Clearly identifying the needs or problems you want to address to help focus your efforts
•       Using that focus to shape training goals and outcomes
•       Deciding whom to train
•       Involving participants in developing your training and how to do so meaningfully
•       Understanding the core topics that should form the foundation of your training
•       How to consider important organizational contexts in shaping your content
•       Recogniing individual readiness and levels of knowledge before you train
•       Determining the resources you need to support your trainings
•       How to select the right trainers

Upcoming sections of the Guide will help you further refine and deliver your trainings once you have developed some of these details.

Identify the needs or problems to be addressed

The first step in developing your training plan is to state clearly why you want or need to do training in the first place. Are there issues, problems, observations, or data that tell you training is necessary? How did you determine that training is the best way to address a need or problem? Perhaps other kinds of approaches (e.g. a policy change) would be more appropriate to address identified needs.

Important reasons for training may include opportunities to:
•       Saturate community efforts by expanding the responsibility and expertise needed to prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
•       Implement or reinforce prevention messages with populations you do not currently work with (e.g. training Latino health workers to promote healthy relationships in their work with Latino families)
•       Identify methods and opportunities for integrating and institutionaliing sexual and/or intimate partner violence prevention as organizational priorities

Another reason for training is the occurrence of an incident that suddenly increases public awareness of sexual violence. Such an event may require both an immediate response and longer-term training efforts. The Boston Area Rape Crisis Center (BARCC), for instance, dealt with such a situation when a popular teacher was accused of sexually assaulting several students. The event traumatied school staff and students.

BARCC staff realied that students, parents, and school staff needed a variety of supports to cope with the situation and resulting emotional issues, especially for individuals who had suffered past abuse. After defining more specifically the needs of the school and community, BARCC staff decided to offer trainings to educate staff and students about sexual violence. It was believed training would help teachers respond to questions from parents and empower both teachers and students to strengthen future prevention efforts.


It will be important to ensure you are not duplicating efforts. Determine what others in your area are already doing about sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence prevention training, perhaps by doing a short resource assessment to find out. For example, YWCA’s often offer a variety of sexual violence and/or domestic violence education and prevention trainings for professionals and the public. Knowing what other groups are doing will save your time and resources as well as reveal potential training partners.


Case study: The Center for Community Peace identifies the problems to address


In addition to its regular program offerings, the center participates in a local positive youth-development coalition. As an outgrowth of the coalition’s effort, the center discovers that students at the local alternative high school have been experiencing high rates of sexualied bullying and sexual assault. Members of the local positive youth-development coalition would like to work with the center to develop a plan for preventing sexualied bullying and assault in their community.
 
Develop goals and outcomes

The issues, needs, or problems you wish to address will shape the goals and desired outcomes of your training plan.
Goals reflect ambitious change that you believe you can actually accomplish. An example of a strong, change-based goal statement would be “to increase bystander intervention behavior among high school males in response to sexist comments made by peers.” Avoid simply describing a program or activity, a common mistake when writing goal statements.

Outcomes—sometimes called objectives—are specific, measurable statements that let you know when you have reached your goals. Outcome statements describe the specific changes in knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors you expect to occur as a result of your actions.

Remember, we are defining training as the process of turning awareness and knowledge into mastered skills and practices to prevent sexual and/or intimate partner violence. Your goals and outcomes will describe these changes and ideally will reflect your aim to increase both knowledge and skills. But, depending on where you start with a particular group, your goals and outcomes could be different, reflecting the need to change knowledge or skills.

The following examples show the difference in goals for knowledge vs. skills training for youth workers in a youth diversion program.


If you are training to increase knowledge, your training goals could be to:
•       Increase knowledge about sexual violence and dating violence perpetration and victimiation
•       Increase knowledge of the overlapping risk factors for sexual and dating violence perpetration and youth violence
•       Identify appropriate opportunities to address issues related to sexual violence and dating violence in current program efforts


If you are training to increase knowledge and also skills, your training goals could include all those shown above as well as to:
•       Increase skills to interrupt language and behaviors that objectify and demean women and to promote respectful language and dating behavior


Good outcome statements are specific, measurable, and realistic. Think carefully about what you can realistically accomplish in your trainings given the groups you want to reach and the scope of your resources.
Develop short, intermediate, and long-term outcomes as follows:

•     Short-term outcomes should describe what you want to happen within a relatively brief period (e.g., during the course of one or several trainings, depending on how many sessions you conduct). Focus your short-term outcomes on what you want people to learn. An example of a short-term outcome would be that coaches learn about the risk and protective factors for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence.

Intermediate outcomes describe what you want to happen after your trainings are completed. Focus your intermediate outcomes on what you want people to do when they go back to their workplaces and apply what they have learned. An example of an intermediate outcome would be that coaches demonstrate interrupting sexual harassment and teaching respect.
 
•       Long-term?outcomes describe the impact you hope to have on the primary prevention of sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence after the trainings are completed, but farther out into the future. Describe what you hope will change as a result of your trainings. An example of a long-term outcome would be that incidents of sexual harassment decrease in schools.

Well-written and complete outcome statements will usually define the following five elements (Fisher, Imm, Chinman & Wandersman, 2006) as you describe:
•       Who will change—the professionals you are training.
•       What will change—the knowledge, attitudes, and skills you expect to change.
•       By how much—how much change you think you can realistically achieve.
•       By when—the timeframe within which you hope to see change.
•       How the change will be measured—the surveys, tests, interviews, or other methods you will use to measure the different changes specified.

A useful way to remember these elements is the ABCDE Method of Writing Outcome Statements (Atkinson, Deaton, Travis & Wessel, 1999):
A—Audience (who will change?)
B—Behavior (what will change?)
C—Condition (by when?)
D—Degree (by how much?)
E—Evidence (how will the change be measured?)

Address as many of the five elements as possible when you are writing outcome statements, but keep in mind that you may not be able to address them all. Such gaps may indicate areas where you need to gather more information to complete your outcome statement.

Remember to link your training goals back to your organization’s plan for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence prevention goals or state and local plans when it makes sense. However, you need not have a training goal for every goal in your prevention plan.

As you move ahead, you may find it helpful to summarie your plans in a logic model. We have provided a blank Logic Model Template for you to use starting on page 71 in the Appendix. We have also provided a filled-in example of the logic model on page 72 based on the case study as an illustration.

A detailed table titled Whom to Train starting on page 52 in the Appendix summaries the different kinds of organizations you should consider training. Included in the table are example outcomes for those organizations.

Case study: The Center for Community Peace identifies training goals and outcomes

To help prepare for the trainings, center staff discuss and identify key goals for the training, which include those they consider generally important based on their knowledge in the subject area, as well as those they anticipate will be specifically important to the issues and problems that need to be addressed in the school. Goals for training are:

•       Increasing knowledge of the importance of primary prevention
•       Increasing knowledge of how youth display sexualied bullying and harassing behaviors
•       Increasing knowledge about factors that put students at risk for sexual violence and those that reduce students’ chances of experiencing or perpetrating sexual violence
•       Increasing skills among students, faculty, and staff to address sexualied bullying and harassment through policies, practices, conduct, and positive school climate
The center drafted the following outcomes:
•       In the short-term, all participants will be able to—
o       Compare and contrast the differences between primary  prevention and other strategies such as intervention (i.e., providing services after an incident has occurred) and explain how primary prevention complements intervention strategies and activities
o       List the behaviors considered sexualied bullying or  sexually harassing
o       Compare and contrast the differences between healthy  (i.e., positive relationships) and unhealthy (i.e., sexually violent) behavior
o       List and describe risk and protective factors 
•       In the intermediate term, participants will be able to—
o       List and describe effective practices for stopping existing  sexualied bullying and harassing behaviors as well as preventing sexual assault
o       Describe and display, through role plays and other  methods, how to model healthy and respectful behaviors
o       Review existing school policies and codes of conduct  to identify existing rules that can be used to promote a culture that does not tolerate sexual violence
Identify, where needed, new school policies and codes of conduct that promote a positive school climate emphasiing positive social behaviors and healthy relationships.
•       In the long term, participants will be able to:
o       Report measurable progress in emphasiing the use of  existing rules to promote respect
o       Report measurable progress in putting new policies and  codes of conduct into place both to promote respect and to increase positive school climate
o       Demonstrate a decrease in incidents of sexualied  bullying and harassment within the school
o       Demonstrate an increase in safety, equality, and respect 

As part of its training plans, the center will soon involve participants from the school to help further define and tailor the goals and outcomes using the ABCDE method.


Decide whom to train
Ideally, everyone has a role in preventing sexual and/or intimate partner violence, but it is not realistic or feasible for prevention practitioners to train all the professionals in their communities. Training takes a significant investment of time and resources. The best use of your resources will be to start by training those whom you believe exhibit readiness. What we mean by readiness in this context includes groups (Biech, 2008):
•       Already connected to your prevention goals
•       Already motivated to learn and develop new skills
•       Who have support and resources within their organizations to apply what they learn
For example, if one of the activities associated with your state prevention plan is to partner with your state’s Safe and Drug Free Schools program, then you might consider developing ongoing prevention training for school administrators associated with such efforts.

You have probably already assessed readiness when you have worked with community partners on first responses to sexual and/or intimate partner violence. You identified gaps and other issues in the system’s responses to victims. You identified who in the system needed training and worked with them on developing organizational supports and developing and implementing new policies and procedures. For example, when training police in responding to sexual violence, you typically thought “up the chain” about whom you needed buy-in from before training responding officers. Apply this same strategic thinking to planning primary prevention training.


Note: The prompt to consider readiness at this stage is meant to be from a high-level view of the professionals you hope to train. Later in this guide, we will discuss more about organizational and individual readiness to help you develop content tailored to the needs of your trainees.


To help you begin your choices about whom to train, consider these questions:


With whom do you already have relationships? It makes the most sense to start with professionals or organizations that are already aligned with the mission of your organization or have identified violence prevention as a part of their mission.

Consider training exchanges with other programs or organizations as an efficient way to use your resources and build relationships. For example, you could offer training on sexual and/or intimate partner violence prevention to a community network that could, in turn, train your organization on youth development.

Tip: Remember to consider starting with staff, volunteers, and board of directors in your own agency or organization.

One successful example of this approach comes out of the merger of two different coalitions in Virginia in 2004, resulting in the Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Action Alliance. The need to prevention while also emphasiing intervention and, at the same time, bridging domestic and sexual violence, called for cross-training of staff to be done with care. Leadership decided to leverage the successful approaches from each area, including the prevention focus of sexual violence and work in domestic or intimate partner violence with advocates and other professionals, into a series of trainings that included:

•       An initial training for internal staff on primary prevention
•       Additional explanations of basic prevention principles such as public health approaches, defining elements of primary prevention and the social-ecological model provided during three hours of regularly-scheduled bi-monthly staff meetings
•       Later in the first year, another four hours was spent with staff viewing the film Kinsey and discussing some of the basic tenets of healthy sexuality
•       A year after the merger, leadership encouraged all coalition staff to attend a 1 ½ day-long training on “Promoting Protective Factors to Prevent Sexual and Domestic Violence: Applying the Search Institute’s Developmental Assets Framework.” This training not only provided valuable content, but also helped professionals meet their annual development requirements.
•       The coalition has also developed its own Guidelines for the Prevention of Sexual Violence and Intimate Partner Violence to assist Virginia sexual and domestic intimate partner violence agencies in developing effective primary prevention initiatives.

The coalition also holds an annual 2 ½ day-long training retreat at a local women’s college open to staff and volunteers from any local member program. The retreat involves coalition staff and plays a crucial role in sustaining and refreshing learning on primary prevention.


With whom do you have natural alliances? Groups that naturally share your concerns and constituencies are more likely to be ready and open to incorporating sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence prevention into their practices. Think about the following groups:


•       Youth-serving organizations
•       Childcare and daycare workers 
•       Faith-based organizations
•       Organizations working with men and boys
•       Violence prevention organizations and coalitions
•       School and higher-education personnel
•       Health care providers

A good example of tapping a natural alliance comes from the South Bay 0-5 Coalition in Chula Vista, California. As part of its work with the coalition, the staff of South Bay Community Services routinely offers the Incredible Years training to its coalition partners. The Incredible Years curriculum is aimed at teaching children 0-5 and their parents a variety of social skills and competencies that may help reduce the likelihood of intimate partner violence perpetration or victimiation later in life. South Bay Community Services decided to offer the training to local preschool and childcare providers to expand its prevention outreach as well. It was hoped that the training would boost the capacity of more providers who have direct contact with children to help reduce intimate partner violence.

A detailed table titled Whom to Train, starting on page 52 in the Appendix, summaries the different kinds of organizations you should consider training. The table also includes information on the rationale for training each group as well as suggested content and example outcomes.
 
What other health or social issues overlap with sexual and/or intimate partner violence? Sexual and/or intimate partner violence share many risk and protective factors with other health and social issues and are themselves considered risk factors for adverse health behaviors. For example, sexual violence victimization increases risk for substance abuse and impacts academic achievement. Schools that are invested in lowering youth substance abuse and improving academic success may be open to sexual violence prevention as one avenue to achieve this goal.

Who can be levers for change or impact? Certain individuals, groups of professionals, or entire organizations can be catalysts for broader change in your community. Youth workers, for example, have powerful opportunities to model positive relationships and promote healthy youth development. Training a diverse group of youth workers from a variety of organizations has the potential for wide-ranging influence. Training managers or the board of directors of a key organization could influence organizational practices and promote a culture of respect. In rural and frontier areas professionals often wear multiple hats and therefore may have wide ranging impact.
Another tactic to try is piggybacking your training with others who are already training professionals, such as medical schools. You could also encourage policy makers and others who set guidelines and professional standards not only to participate in trainings, but also to change policies and procedures to support sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence prevention.

The Migrant Clinician Network, for example, an organization that serves as a “force for justice in health care for the mobile poor” often trains peer health educators called “promoters” who already successfully address health issues with migrant workers to also deliver a five-session healthy relationship curriculum with male migrant workers.

Where is there organizational support for individual practice change? In some cases, training must include those with the power to make changes in plans, policies, and procedures. You may know of individuals such as teachers or youth workers who support your work, but you also want to know how much their agencies and organizations support your work. You may not be as effective in training a group of teachers, for example, to implement a primary prevention curriculum in their classrooms if the school administration does not fully support the teachers in doing so.

Some dimensions of organizational support include (Johnson, Fisher, Wandersman, Collins & White, in press):
Awareness. How aware are organizations of efforts to prevent sexual and/or intimate partner violence?

Skills. If organizations are aware and supportive, do they have the necessary skills needed to implement primary prevention?
Commitment. If awareness and skills are present, is there also a level of commitment to the important tasks necessary to prevent sexual and/or intimate partner violence? How likely is the organization to commit its own resources to engage in prevention-related activities?

From your experience, you may be able to come to some conclusions very quickly about which organizations have the basic levels of awareness, skills, and commitment needed to serve as a good springboard for effective training. Answering these questions for other organizations may require time, staff, and resources.

What to do with a group that is only willing to let you do a single training when you know multiple training sessions are necessary for skills mastery? You may need to say no to organizations with such limitations so you can focus your finite resources on organizations that will have better payoffs for your prevention plans. On the other hand, if you have been trying to get a foot in the door with a particular organization for a long time, delivering a single training could help further your efforts. Take time to discuss your stance on this issue.

One key to your success will be to continually invite people to partner and collaborate with you. You might have to really pursue a group you think is important to engage. Or, you might find that because of your expertise, you have groups pursuing you for training. Deciding whom to train and how much time you spend on assessing readiness, engaging organizations, or helping to build organizational support are all important parts of your planning.

Case study: The Center for Community Peace decides whom to train


After talking with other members of the positive youth development coalition and interviewing administrators of the alternative high school, the center decides to provide training for administrators and faculty at the school so they can learn how to address and prevent harmful sexualied bullying behaviors and assault among students. Based on student focus groups, the center also realies that other school personnel such as bus drivers and cafeteria workers also play a role in influencing school climate. Given this information, the center decides to include all school personnel in training but administrators want to discuss if all personnel need the same content and dosage.

 Involve participants in training development


Once you have decided whom you want to train, invite several of those professionals to help you shape the content and delivery of your trainings. This early involvement by a small work group is the best way to ensure your plans are relevant for your participants.
Inclusion of training participants can be helpful in developing almost every area of your training plans, including:
•       Understanding the context and practices of their home organizations
•       Selecting trainers
•       Assisting with organizational and individual readiness assessments ahead of time to understand levels of motivation and engagement
•       Understanding the constituents your professionals work with
•       Understanding the community context
•       Helping develop training agendas and to help shape training content with an emphasis on preparing participants for learning and change (Biech, 2008)
•       Determining training activities and the resources needed to implement them
•       Improving the cultural competence of your trainings
•       Determining appropriate follow-up to support training application
•       Determining appropriate ways to assess effectiveness

Involving participants up front will take time and effort, but it is worth it. Here are some ways to involve participants in planning:


Involve a diverse group of participants. Invite professionals from different cultures, organizations, and communities, as well as from different generations, when appropriate. Participants can help you develop and deliver trainings that are culturally competent. For instance, they can offer guidance on how to address the different ways professional communities think and talk about sexual and/or intimate partner violence, rather than simply translating materials into a different language.

Make it easy for people to participate. Plan meetings at times and in places that are convenient for participants. Would providing a light meal increase participation? While you may not be able to use federal dollars to provide food, you may be able to get local business to donate these resources as in-kind, tax-deductible contributions. Consider going to the participants’ organizations.

Gather the information you need in a variety of ways. Convene some small groups first to help you map out what your plans need to look like. Gather some information through telephone interviews. Do a short paper survey at some of your professionals’ regularly scheduled meetings or ask participants to complete a short, web-based survey.

Learn more: Free or low-cost web-based survey software can help you design short, easy-to-use surveys participants can complete online


•       Survey Monkey (free)—www.surveymonkey.com
•       oomerang (basic package is free—www.oomerang.com
In the case of the Boston Area Rape Crisis Center (BARCC) cited earlier, staff sought input from the school district’s superintendent, principals, and school nurses from two middle schools and one high school to determine who should be included in educational trainings following the accusation of sexual assault by a beloved teacher. The decision was made to train the entire staff and student body at the affected school. By including youth and adults, BARCC was better able to empower these two groups to work together to build a positive, healthy, and safe school environment. Educators and parents eventually reported being better able to identify risky situations and possible perpetrators; teachers and staff reported being able to respond more knowledgably to parents.

Case study: The Center for Community Peace involves participants in training development
Two coalition members, Jorge Chave, a parent, and Anna Warren, a detective from the Special Victims Unit of the local police department, agree to facilitate a discussion with school administrators. Their goal is to determine how receptive school officials are about helping to address and correct the problem.

During their meetings with school personnel, center staff hears from teachers and guidance counselors about their perceptions of sexually harmful behavior at the school. Several school employees disagree about what constitutes sexually harmful behavior and the roles they play in addressing and preventing these problems.

Nonetheless, they discover some critical information and find several key advocates:


•       Rita Lincoln, a guidance counselor, is particularly articulate. She shares with the group that several students had asked her for help regarding sexualied bullying and assault. Lincoln feels the problem is growing rapidly and agrees to lead the effort to further explore and address this issue at the school.
•       Buck Frost, a physical education teacher and sports coach, states that sexualied bullying seems to be an erroneous “rite of passage” for some participants on his teams. He stresses the need for strong male mentors and agrees to work on solving the problem.
•       Lou Ventura, the technology coordinator at the school, mentions that he has seen an increase in sexually explicit instant messages and e-mails from some students over the school’s network. He agrees to help in any way he can.

As the center develops its training plans, staff invites these individuals to help shape the trainings. Lincoln, Frost, and Ventura are especially helpful in reviewing training plans and materials. Center staff uses their feedback to refine the training goals and outcomes, which helps increase the training’s relevance. These advocates are also enlisted to help build consensus with other school staff members and to help deliver training sessions.

Center staff members Bobby Ming and Hani Littlefoot also identify two young people in the course of their conversations at the alternative school whom they want to include. They believe these students can provide valuable, real-world experience and help boost credibility for the trainings. After clearing the idea with the school, the center, and families of the young people, the youth are invited to become part of the training team.
Identify core topics for trainings

The more meaningful the information you teach, the more likely people will take what they learn back to their workplaces and use it in their everyday practice. At this early planning stage, consider the core topics you want to cover. Although training sessions will be tailored to specific participants’ needs as you gather more information during the planning process, these topics will form the foundation of any training you do.

We suggest including the following core topics in all of your trainings:


Understanding what constitutes sexual and intimate partner violence. Sexual violence and sexual health are not commonly discussed in our society, and many children, adolescents, and adults do not know what constitutes sexually harmful behavior. Cordelia Anderson (2002) developed a helpful Sexual Behavior Continuum that may be a useful teaching tool. It describes a continuum of sexual behaviors from positive (healthy/helpful, appropriate, respectful, safe) to playful (teasing and flirting) to mutually inappropriate to harmful (sexual bullying) to harassment and violence.

Likewise, intimate partner violence is also not commonly discussed, but is commonly experienced in homes and communities, leaving professionals with their own opinions and biases about why it happens. Providing context about the occurrence of intimate partner violence, from a single episode to ongoing battering, and an understanding of the four types of behaviors that constitute intimate partner violence -- physical violence, sexual violence, threats, and emotional abuse -- will help professionals start to see their role in prevention.

Understanding primary prevention. Obviously, if you are training other professionals to implement strategies or policies to prevent sexual and/or intimate partner violence from occurring in the first place, they need to both understand and promote primary prevention. Core topics to explore include:

•       What is included in primary prevention such as working with men and boys to promote positive social norms; building bystander skills; and promoting healthy respectful relationships.
•       What is not included in primary prevention such as just raising awareness of sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence; knowing what services are available to survivors; learning how to help a friend who has been abused
Note: While raising awareness can be one important task when working to prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence, remember that raising awareness by itself is insufficient to prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence.
•       How primary prevention complements intervention such as being part of an overall response to sexual and/or intimate partner violence
•       Skills the professionals you are training need to have in order to be successful in their prevention activities (e.g. using non-violent language)
You should also discuss the characteristics of effective prevention programs (Nation et al., 2003). Such programs are appropriately timed, comprehensive, theory-based, and socio-culturally relevant. Well-trained staff conducts the programs, varying the teaching methods, and presenting information in sufficient dosage. Such programs also build positive relationships.
Learn more: We have included a tip sheet in the Appendix on page 62 that summaries the characteristics of effective prevention programs.

Understanding what increases risk and protects against sexual and/or intimate partner violence perpetration and victimiation. Individual, relationship, community, and societal factors can increase risk for or protect against sexual and intimate partner violence perpetration and victimiation. It is important for the professionals you are training to understand those factors and to identify their role in modifying them among the individuals, families, and communities with whom they work. Training materials should include information about risk and protective factors, state or local data about the incidence and prevalence of sexual or intimate partner violence, along with the social and political issues that can foster or inhibit change.

Responding to disclosures of abuse. When training professionals about sexual and intimate partner violence prevention, you should also consider including some skill building for responding to disclosures of abuse. While this is not an activity of primary prevention, invariably, as the professionals you are training begin implementing what they have learned (e.g., talking with youth about healthy relationships, interrupting sexually harassing behaviors), they will have survivors of sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence disclose their experiences. These professionals need to know how to respond appropriately and supportively, what the mandatory reporting requirements are, if any, and what resources exist in the community to help survivors.

Consider organizational context


Training does not occur in a vacuum. You are asking professionals to learn new skills, then take those skills back to their workplaces to use them. Worksites, professional requirements, and practice norms all need to support application of these new skills to help achieve sexual and intimate partner violence prevention. You may have to do some research and preparation before the actual training to make it easier for training participants to apply what they learn when back in their work environment.

For example, before training teachers and coaches how to recognie and interrupt sexual harassment or other abusive behaviors, you may need to better understand existing administrative policies and how the skills you will teach fit with those policies. You may discover that supportive policies do not exist or current policies need to be modified to enable effective school climate change. Trainings will need to address how trainees can meet these challenges.

The organizational assessment need not be an enormous job, but it is important to look at potential barriers that could hinder the incorporation of new skills and to identify facilitators that may help promote new practices. Chances are you already know a lot about the organizations from the work you are already doing and can easily summarie what you know as you proceed with your plans. If you have already involved potential participants in your planning process, they can also be an excellent source of information on these issues.

Consider the following:

•       Who the organization serves. It may be useful for you to know about the organization itself and who is served to help tailor training content in meaningful ways. For example, if training will be provided to the staff of a inpatient, substance abuse treatment center that serves women with children under 16 living with them, knowing more about the families being served could reveal important points to address. Are there incidents of prior victimization? What are the risk and protective factors present among the organization’s clients? Seeking this kind of information also reinforces the engagement of your potential training participants as experts on their own constituencies.

•       Professional requirements. Do the professionals you plan to train need to meet any continuing education, regulatory, or other requirements? By incorporating these elements into your curriculum, you increase the relevancy and accessibility of the training.

For example, many states require that social workers obtain a certain number of continuing education credits each year. State licensing boards and organizations such as the National Association of Social Workers have standards for providers of continuing professional education (CPE). If you want your training on sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence prevention to be useful for continuing education, you’ll need to consult with relevant organizations to be sure coursework and activities qualify for CPE credits.

•       Workplace policies and practices. Familiarize yourself with relevant policies, procedures, and goals of trainees’ agencies and organizations. Talk with potential trainees about their practice community and work environmental norms to glean important information about existing practices you can highlight in your training sessions. In doing so, you may also learn what training styles will work best and what kinds of information groups have already received.

•       Organizational and leadership priorities. The more you know about existing priorities and concerns, the more you can connect your trainings to them. Many schools, for example, are very concerned about bullying. Offering training on sexualized bullying or teen dating violence could appeal to schools, especially those with concerns but limited resources to address the issues. Providing trainings that are logically linked in this way could also help establish or strengthen partnerships.

•       Community context.  Examine and understand community norms (i.e., local politics, economics, and social contexts) and how they can influence trainees’ implementation of newly acquired prevention skills for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence. For example, you might train youth diversion workers in two adjoining counties, one of which is more conservative. The more conservative county may have to implement strategies to promote healthy sexuality or teen dating violence strategies differently than the less-conservative county. While these two groups have the same job descriptions and work with similar populations, you will need to help them tailor their approaches to the unique needs of their communities.
Note: Later in this guide, we will discuss how organizational context may also influence whom you choose as a trainer.

Consider individual readiness and knowledge

Biech (2008) describes two important ways to help training participants learn. One is to energize their motivations to learn and two is to take advantage of whatever existing motivations they already have. Taking some time up front to determine the motivations as well as knowledge and skill levels of your trainees will help you tailor your trainings to build on existing knowledge and skills, fill in gaps, and use or build readiness as needed. You do not want to waste time going over issues and skills they already understand, nor do you want to cover topics for which they lack requisite background knowledge or are unmotivated to learn.

Assessing individual readiness may reveal the need to conduct a simple, basic training to ease participants’ concerns and make them feel comfortable talking about sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence prevention issues. Follow-up with groups of this type could include more advanced, skill-building trainings. Conversely, your assessment may lead you to develop more advanced, comprehensive training to meet the needs of professionals such as those called to immediate action because of an agency or community imperative to prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence.
Gathering information about individual readiness can also become an important part of your evaluations later on. Short, pretest surveys, for example, determine participant knowledge about specific topics before your training. After the training, the same survey, given as a posttest, will reveal if participants learned what you intended.

Questions aimed at assessing individual readiness will be highly dependent on exactly what you plan to cover in specific trainings and should be specific, rather than overly broad. Ask individuals to identify:

•       Learning needs and preferred training approaches?(e.g. I understand information best when it is presented in lecture, visual, and auditory formats)
•       Current knowledge about the planned training topics
•       Beliefs?about challenges or barriers related to sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence prevention

•       Their reason or goal for training,?(e.g., I value the information because it will benefit me in my work) which may help reveal how motivated they are to learn new knowledge and/or skills


The professionals you invited to help you develop your trainings—or even a key individual from among them—can provide useful information about the group you are training. Information might include background on education, experience, and skill level within the group as well as details about an organization’s history, work, and relationships in the community.

What if you find variance in levels of knowledge and/or motivation among individuals within a group? You and those helping develop your trainings can incorporate activities to engage all the participants so they will want to learn including compelling stories, skill building that directly addresses what individuals say they want to learn, and asking learners to make plans for how they will apply what they learn (Biech, 2008).


Note: We talk more about how to build and tailor your training content in the next section of the Guide starting on page 33.

Case study: The Center for Community Peace examines organizational context and prepares to explore individual readiness
In a series of meetings with school administrators, personnel, and student groups, center staff learns how different groups perceive the problem of sexual violence. This information provides a gauge of both the school climate and level of support for change. Center staff also discovers what the school has done to address the problem—and what they have not done—and determines if there are any relevant policies in place to help address the issue of sexual bullying and harassment. School administrators in particular show a great deal of support. They pledge to attend the training and take an active role in addressing and preventing sexualied bullying and assault.


The center receives permission to do small focus groups and a limited, school-climate survey with teachers, guidance counselors, and students involved in school clubs to further determine individual readiness. The center particularly wants to know what challenges the school faces in making students, educators, and staff aware of what constitutes sexual assault and why it should not be tolerated.

Determine resource needs

You will need a variety of resources to support and deliver trainings including supplies, money, space, and marketing materials, as well as other human and technical resources. As you develop your training plans, you will obviously have to make decisions about how much you can do based on the resources you have. Some important areas to consider:


•       Human resources. Do you have the staff capacity needed to plan, deliver, and follow up on all the trainings you plan to offer? You will need to either prepare your own staff or find the right trainers to conduct the trainings.
Note: We provide guidance on how to select trainers in the next section of the guide.
•       Technical resources. You may need computers and software to produce training materials and to coordinate schedules and track your progress, including your evaluations. You may also need a laptop and audio/visual equipment to deliver the trainings. Do not forget the staff needed to manage these resources, too.
•       Fiscal resources. You will need to ensure your existing funding can cover staff time devoted to your training plans, pay trainers (if hired from outside your staff), buy food, and rent facilities or seek new sources of funding. You may be able to get some of these items covered through matching or in-kind donations from other participating organizations.
One other resource area to consider is how you plan to publicie and market the availability of your trainings. Do you have a website that can be used or will you need to create one? Do you need mailers, newsletters, or other materials designed, printed, and sent out?

Just as training needs among professionals will probably differ between urban and rural areas, available resources—and needs—will probably vary as well. North Dakota DELTA/EMPOWER state coordinators found, for example, that several local urban and rural coalitions focused on different ways to engage participants in prevention. Rural coalitions worked with community leaders; urban coalitions decided to expand existing prevention partnerships. Available resources to accomplish these tasks varied. While the urban coalitions often had more people or could combine some existing funds to move their work forward, rural communities often found creative new ways of pulling teams together from those working in existing efforts.


As you talk with policy makers, funders, and other potential partners to gather support and resources to improve your training efforts, be sure to describe your training goals and outcomes and your progress so far. If you have not been able to achieve goals and outcomes because of a lack of resources, give policy makers and funders clear ideas about the resources needed to institutionalie and successfully implement effective sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence prevention efforts.

Select trainers

Communications research shows that the messenger can be more important than the message in getting the attention and buy-in of an audience. Whether you use trainers from within your own organization, or work with trainers outside your organization, select people who demonstrate:


•       Firm grounding in primary prevention
•       Knowledge of, experience in, and commitment to the specific content to be presented
•       Credibility with the professionals you are training, which includes experience, profession, position, and language similar to your participants
•       Experience delivering content with cultural competence
•       Experience dealing with possible disclosures of abuse from training participants

Develop a solid training team of people in your agency or community from which you can select individuals to do specific trainings. Ask the professionals who are helping you develop your trainings for input about the make-up of the team and the selection criteria for building the team.
Consider these ideas as you start building your training team:

•       Match trainers with participants. When it makes sense, match trainers with learners by experience, profession, position, and cultural backgrounds. For example, training religious leaders to promote healthy, equitable relationships would be perceived as more credible and relevant when delivered by a leader from the same or a similar denomination. Diverse groups of learners will also benefit from seeing people from their own community on the training team.

•       Develop a diverse training team. A multidisciplinary team approach can be very effective in bringing a broader complement of skills and expertise to your training. Combining different professions such as public health nurses teamed with advocate trainers can also model cross-discipline collaboration for your learners. A multicultural and/or multigenerational training team also models cooperation and sharing among cultures. Consider pairing young people with adults or including trusted leaders from a particular community or cultural group as part of your team.

•       Find other training resources. If your organization does not have the internal staff resources for training, consider hiring consultants. You may also be able to find trainers you can partner with in local colleges or business training centers.

Note: This Guide can be used to help prepare trainers for the tasks described, whether you are using someone within your organization or a professional trainer or consultant. You may need to take some additional time to work more closely with an outside trainer or consultant to develop the content and materials you plan to deliver.

In the Appendix, refer to the worksheet Criteria for Selecting Trainers on page 63 to help you choose trainers who will be a good fit for each of the groups or organizations you train.
 
Summarize what you have learned so far


Now is a good time to start summarizing the information and ideas you have developed thus far. To help you, we have provided the following resources and worksheets in the Appendix to use as needed:
•       •       A completed sample background worksheet on page 66 using the Center for Community Peace case study
•       Worksheet: Use a Logic Model to Map Plan Details on page 70.
•       A completed sample logic model on page 72 using the Center for Community Peace case study

 
Refine and Tailor Your Training Plans

Now that you know who you want to train, who will do the training, what resources you have to work with, and what you hope to achieve, it is time to plan for exactly what you will teach and how you will do that. In this next section, we will cover how to:
•       Tailor or enhance core training content to meet the specific needs of the professionals you will train
•       Determine sufficient dosage for your trainings
•       Determine the best training approaches for your selected groups
•       Train with cultural competence
Note: If you are using the logic model, by the time you reach the end of this section of the Guide, you will be able to fill in many of the remaining sections of it.

Tailor training content for your audience

Earlier in the Guide, we discussed core topics to consider for inclusion in your trainings (i.e., elements of primary prevention, risk and protective factors, definition of sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence, response to disclosures of abuse). Use what you have learned about different groups of professionals to tailor the core content to match their unique needs. Doing so will ensure that everyone you train is exposed to the core topics while also addressing what they need to know to do their jobs.


You can use what you learn from different groups of professionals about what they describe and understand about their organizations and their constituencies to help tailor trainings in culturally relevant ways. This validates and uses the expertise of the participants while helping them see how they can apply what they know in ways that are meaningful for their clients. For example, different racial or ethnic groups may have different norms or language to describe healthy relationships. Professionals who work with these populations may be more knowledgeable about such norms and language and can bring that knowledge to the table. You can help them figure out how to apply their new training skills in ways that best fit with these communities.

In addition to providing the professionals you are training with these important core topics, you also want to teach them the knowledge, skills, and practices they will need to conduct primary prevention of sexual and/or intimate partner violence in their jobs. Although the exact content will depend on whom you are training and what your goals are for those groups, you will want to consider these basic elements:


•       Roles professionals play in preventing sexual violence and/ or intimate partner violence
•       Specific skills and competencies needed to implement prevention strategies for sexual and/or intimate partner violence, including teen dating violence (e.g., helping youth workers model empathy and respect)
•       How to identify teachable moments in professional practice and everyday life
•       Modeling and teaching concepts that influence behavior changes (e.g., interrupting sexist attitudes and behaviors or promoting positive youth development practices into everyday work)

Find logical ways to link the content of your training with what people already do. For example, a youth-serving agency that regularly addresses teen drinking could use newly acquired skill in articulating risk and protective factors to explain the strong association between alcohol use and perpetration, particularly as staff frame the concepts of consent and coercion and use specific examples in their mentoring sessions.

How you present and sequence activities within the training may help make it easier for participants to learn, retain, and ultimately use new knowledge and skills. As mentioned earlier, Biech (2008) notes that participants are more likely to attend trainings and use new skills if they feel their time will be well spent developing abilities that have obvious benefit to then. Among Biech’s suggestions for developing more motivational trainings:


•       Develop up-front learning activities that intrigue, excite and captivate participants’ attention before launching into detailed skill development
•       Instead of just listing objectives and expected outcomes, look for opportunities to develop compelling stories to convey content; testimonials from previous participants could be used to help boost motivation for example
Assist participants in thinking through whether learning new skills will be worth the effort and then help them devise a plan for making the changes they will need to make to put those skills into practice
Note: Later on in the Guide, we will talk about using training follow-up to help move learning into practice.  As you work to tailor content for specific groups, look again at the Whom to Train table starting on page 52 in the Appendix, and consider the information about suggested training content and example outcomes.

Case study: The Center for Community Peace tailors training content


Center staff members are familiar with many of the alternative high school’s students because about 40% of them participate in various programs at the center. Bobby Ming, director of youth programs, and Hani Littlefoot, a certified sexual assault counselor, have talked informally with several students about their experiences with sexualied bullying and assault.


Given these discussions, Ming and Littlefoot research the problem further by conducting focus groups with other students, including those who have not yet come forward to discuss this problem. They obtain a wider student perspective about the sources of the problem. They also gather ideas about how the center could help motivate school personnel to address—and prevent—sexualied bullying and assault.

Some of the topics the center decides to include in the training:
•       Discussions about sexual violence stories as reported in the news compared with what youth report is happening in their communities
•       Discussions about the special needs of some students in the alternative high school context, including what may put them at potentially greater risk for any type of violence
•       Role-play and modeling activities to demonstrate positive, respectful behavior
•       Creation of a plan by youth and adults to make the school safer

Sprinkling vs. saturation

One-time trainings are not sufficient to change behavior. Multiple training sessions are more effective not only for changing behavior, but also for gaining better buy-in and working toward sustainability of those changed behaviors.

How do you determine sufficient dosage? Consider the value of sprinkling vs. saturation. Rather than spreading yourself thin doing six, three-hour trainings to six different groups (i.e., sprinkling), your trainings might be more effective if you deliver two, day-long trainings to two different groups and offer six months of follow-up technical assistance (i.e., saturation). While the second option takes more effort for the trainer, and requires a greater degree of commitment from the professionals you are training, the likelihood of practice change is greater.

One frame of reference to consider -- Many volunteer advocate or crisis line trainings require at least 40 hours before participants can answer the hotline or do first response advocacy. We are not suggesting all of your professional trainings have to be 40 hours long, but you will need to provide more than just a few hours of training if you want to achieve skill changes in the workplace.

Keeping your training goals in mind can help you decide what sufficient dosage means. If you are trying to increase knowledge, you can probably do that effectively with fewer training sessions. Changing behavior—your ultimate goal—will require more time.
You must also consider your own resources when determining appropriate dosage. What level of staff time will be needed to develop, market, and deliver your planned trainings? What sorts of resources will you need to deliver multiple trainings to multiple groups? Does your organization have those resources? If not, you may need to hold less training or look elsewhere for partners who could assist and support your efforts.


You may find some groups want you to train them, but only once. The group making the request may be one that you have been trying to develop a relationship with for a long time or one to which you would like to be more closely connected. While you are trying to avoid short, single-session trainings, such an event may be necessary to nurture a future relationship.
Although single events may help you get your feet in some important doors, once you have accomplished more of your training goals, you will want to be clear about how to make best use of your limited resources and concentrate on saturation. Depending on your community and some of the political considerations you face, you might need to say no to some groups. That is okay. You probably want to spend some time discussing how to negotiate these situations as you develop your training plans.


Identify the best training approaches and methods

The educational strategies used to deliver the content are often as important as the content itself and the person who delivers it. The more your trainings include strategies that reinforce the way your participants naturally learn, retain, and use information, the more effective your trainings will be.


Adults have special needs and requirements as learners that differ from those of children and teens. To increase the effectiveness of your trainings, you will need to first understand how adults learn best and incorporate some of these strategies into your work (Lieb, 1991).


Adults retain more when they can learn through a combination of seeing, hearing, saying, and doing. They need to feel autonomous and self-directed in learning situations, preferring educational environments that deliver practical, goal-oriented knowledge that seems immediately relevant to their experience (Knowles, 1998).

The following table highlights principles of adult learning, along with their implications for training.

Adult education principle   

  
Implications for training plans


Adults learn best when they perceive learning as relevant to their needs. 

  •       Identify learners’ needs and what is important to them.
•       Provide real-life situations and emphasie the application of learning to real problems.
Adults learn by doing and by being actively involved in the learning process.       •        Provide activities that require active participation of learners.
•       Provide activities that involve the learners as whole people: their ideas, attitudes, feelings, and physical being.
Adult learners are unique. Each learns in a different way, at a different rate, and from different experiences. •       Establish an atmosphere of respect and understanding.
•       Use a variety of training techniques.
Participants bring relevant and important knowledge and experiences to the training setting.         •       Provide opportunities for sharing information.
•       Discuss and analye participants’ experiences.
•       Use participants as a resource and encourage them to participate and share their experiences.
Used with permission from the Guide to Participatory Training for Trainers of Primary Health Care Workers, Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. (2007).
 
Taking time to assess and match the best learning strategies to the training group improves your chances of accomplishing what you set out to do. There is more information available about adult learning than we can realistically cover within the scope of these guidelines. However, the tip sheet Overview of Training Approaches and Methods on page 73 in the Appendix summaries information on adult learning styles as well as training approaches and methods.

Just as prevention strategies cannot have a one-size-fits-all approach, neither can training. Trainers must be aware of the many issues that could influence the learning environment. To be effective and relevant to diverse groups of participants, training design, content, and delivery all need to be done with cultural competency. This is different than talking to groups about cultural competency. We recommend moving beyond simply trying to increase awareness of cultural issues; rather, demonstrate your organization’s full engagement and integration of diverse perspectives. Working with cultural competence involves changing your behavior and is an ongoing, daily, evolving process. Training with cultural competence assumes you will actively engage participants in learning how to change their behavior as well.


Cultural competence is a topic of special interest and study to many. Here, we offer highlights from a variety of sources to help you get started in shaping your trainings. We believe the information provided on cultural competence will be useful in all aspects of your trainings including selecting trainers, tailoring content for specific groups to be trained, and determining appropriate training approaches as you assess the readiness of individuals within those groups.

Note: The professionals you selected earlier in this process to help you develop your training plans will be important resources for also helping you shape the cultural competence of your work.
What training with cultural competence means

Training with cultural competence means trainings are conducted within the context of the unique aspects of various populations and communities.


The Trainer’s Guide for Cancer Education (National Cancer Institute, 2007) notes that culture influences people’s values, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior. Those factors, in turn, influence how they learn, communicate, make decisions, and interact in groups. But culture does not just mean race or ethnicity. Thinking broadly, culture can also include:
•       Gender
•       Sexual orientation
•       Age
•       Physical abilities
•       Language
•       Extent of acculturation
•       Regional differences
•       Level of education
•       Profession or job
•       Spiritual beliefs and practices

In The Spirit of Culture: Applying Cultural Competency to Strength-based Youth Development (Guajardo Lucero, 2000), cultural competency is described as a change process that occurs personally and professionally as people are exposed to various cultural strengths and traditions, learning to do things differently as a result. This change process embraces diversity, using an inclusive process that involves, reaches, and empowers all members and segments of a community.

Paying attention to everyone’s cultural strengths and traditions moves participants from cultural awareness, sensitivity, and valuing, to incorporating this newly appreciated information into one’s individual, family, and community experiences, actions, and philosophies. “It acknowledges, not ignores, our differences,” writes Guajardo Lucero (2000, p. 10). “It goes beyond celebrating culture, which is often short-term and time limited, to promoting a new way of thinking that fully embraces diversity. Embracing means getting to know someone, developing a relationship with them, and engaging in a process of sharing with them.”


Consider diverse perspectives and influences

As much as people from diverse backgrounds have things in common, they are all individuals and present themselves differently. When designing and delivering your trainings, keep in mind ways that abilities and cultural perspectives can influence how people engage and learn. You may need to increase your knowledge base about some of these different perspectives to help shape your training plans.
Here are a few ideas about the range of different cultural perspectives to consider from Communicating for Cultural Competence, by James W. Leigh (1998):
•       Time frames.??Some groups like to start work on time; others need time at the beginning of a gathering to socialie first.
•       Space.??Culture can influence comfort levels with space between bodies. Physical touching, closeness, distance, and eye contact can all be space issues.
•       Language.??This can be more subtle than just different people speaking different languages; even similar words in two cultures can have different meanings. Take time to understand language ahead of time and keep an open mind throughout training so you can learn as you go.
•       Roles.??The range of roles that people occupy can vary between cultural groups. For example, family may be nuclear, extended, matriarchal, patriarchal; it may be determined by blood lineage or include members not necessarily related by blood or marriage. Sex roles can be culturally determined with male-female interactions differing between groups.
•       Groups or individuals.??Some cultures may place more stock in decisions made by individuals; others may elevate group decisions.
•       Rituals.??Rituals serve as social communications (such as shaking hands or bowing), as a way to invoke power (calling upon God, a Higher Power, or Great Spirit), or as a statement of belief (such as gospel singing). Rituals represent relationships or connection with groups.
An important note about rituals: The rituals people choose to use must be rituals of their own culture that they decide to share with others. For example, it would be inappropriate for anyone other than a Native American to perform a smudging ritual. It may be desirable and important for a group to create new rituals common to and meaningful to all within the group.

•       Class and status.??Class can be related to family, occupation, residence, economic status, or value structures. The status attributed to the trainer and participants can vary according to different cultural perspectives.
•       Values.??People use values to evaluate or judge their world. We all learn values as part of the socialization to our culture. Values reflect a culture’s view toward politics, economics, religion, aesthetics, personal relationships, morality, and the environment.
You may already know some of the cultural perspectives and influences of your training participants because of the work you’re already doing with organizations and in your communities. You can apply what you already know to your training plan, while identifying any gaps in your knowledge that need filling in.

Strategies for training with cultural competence

The following tips are compiled from The Trainer’s Guide to Cancer Education (National Cancer Institute, 2007), The Spirit of Culture: Applying Cultural Competency to Strength-based Youth Development, Communicating for Cultural Competence (Guajardo Lucero, 2000), and interviews with practitioners.
Involve diverse learners in training development. Enlisting some of the professionals you will train to help you develop and implement your training plans will increase your cultural competence. You may need to spend some time forming trusted relationships with key members of different community groups, working with them first to ensure that members of their groups will feel safe, welcomed, and accepted in your training.

Ensure physical and language accessibility. All aspects of a training space must be accessible to diverse participants. Make sure facilities in which trainings are held have ramps and elevators; doors that open easily, preferably with buttons for automatic entry (including restrooms); and adequate lighting.

With regard to language, it will be your responsibility (or the responsibility of a partnering agency) to make interpreters available for both deaf and non-English-speaking participants as resources will allow. Some particular points to consider:
•       Position deaf participants and sign language interpreters so ?they have an unobstructed view of one another and so the deaf participants can also see hearing participants. Deaf participants often learn about the tone of a conversation by seeing everyone’s facial expression.
•       Encourage other participants in the training to speak one at ?a time during discussions and brainstorming sessions. It is difficult for sign language and English interpreters to translate a free-for-all conversation.
•       Encourage other participants to use Standard English to make it easier for language interpreters to translate the conversation. If idioms, slang, or oblique references must be used, take time to clarify meanings.

Be inclusive. Inclusiveness means involving, reaching, and empowering all participants. It can influence how decisions are made, who is asked to lead and train, where trainings are held, and how resources are distributed. For example, some people feel alienated by a democratic model for decision-making, perceiving that it leads to “winners and losers.” They may prefer using a consensus model that takes more time and patience.
Take time. Not all cultures engage the same way in group settings. In some cultures, for example, it may be important for you to invite everyone to share his or her perspective and then wait until each person has spoken before moving onto the next point. Be sensitive to the timing and tempo of the group you are working with, watching for clues about when individuals are ready to accept new ideas and when they are not.

Go beyond literal translations of materials. Simple, literal translations of materials do not necessarily capture nuances or concepts in a way that works for other cultures. If you find it necessary to use translated materials or have training materials translated (and have adequate resources to do so), ensure that they are grounded in the appropriate cultural contexts and include culturally relevant examples that allow groups to relate to the information from their own perspectives. You may be able to work with groups helping develop your training plans to also help you translate the materials you need.

Avoid jargon and generaliations. Some groups, such as health or law enforcement professionals, may share common language and views of issues within their professions. When you are training diverse groups, avoid acronyms, jargon, or other abstract concepts. If you do use them, be sure to explain them well. If you use generaliations, clearly label them as such and modify them with relevant terms such as “many” or “some.”


Respond to individuals. Remember that people within a group might share some common traits, but each member of the group is unique. Each person has his or her own personal experiences, personality traits, values, and belief system. Respond to participants individually, instead of making assumptions based on how they look or present themselves. Such open-minded interactions help trainers and learners alike engage more positively.


Be self-aware. Recognie your own cultural influences on how you think and act. Share appropriate personal experiences from your own culture, but do not try to be an expert on other groups. Be aware of your own power within a group and use it appropriately.

Finally, it may be useful to develop a set of ground rules to use in all of your trainings that incorporates the strategies outlined above. Exercising common sense and judgment when considering how to address issues within trainings and demonstrating respect for participants will also be crucial to creating a positive atmosphere in your trainings.

Prepare for Evaluation and Follow-up


How will you know if your training efforts make a difference? How will you sustain your efforts in the community and help those you train to sustain their efforts as well? The answers are evaluation and follow-up. We cannot cover in these guidelines the depth and breadth of information available about evaluation and follow-up. However, we can provide a few key strategies to help you prepare to conduct some simple evaluations and guide your follow-up activities.

Overall, you will want to measure changes in the following key areas:


•       Knowledge—how well participants understand the concepts presented. An example might be participants’ understanding of how to articulate the scope of sexual and/or intimate partner violence in their own community.
•       Attitude—how participants think or feel or what they believe. An example might be participants’ views on myths about sexual and/or intimate partner violence, such as the belief that someone’s style of dress contributes to sexual and/or intimate partner violence.


•       Skills—participants’ ability to behave in certain ways. An example might be participants’ ability to address sexist comments made by youth with whom they interact.

•       Organizational change—how the original context assessed earlier on in this process has changed to pave the way for needed changes in the workplace. An example might be new policies put into place that detail unacceptable behaviors along with a clear process for employees to file harassment complaints.

Two kinds of evaluation, when used hand-in-hand, will help you understand and articulate the value of your work in the key areas described above. One is process evaluation and the other is outcome evaluation.
Note: If you are using the logic model, by the time you reach the end of this section of the Guide, you will be able to fill in the remaining sections of it.

Plan process evaluation to determine if trainings went as planned
Process evaluation examines the quality of your training delivery, and identifies gaps between what you intended and what actually happened. If training does not produce the results you had hoped for, it may be because of flaws in implementation or audience selection, not because the training itself is ineffective. The results of process evaluation can help you fix these issues before you deliver the training again. Conversely, if you are achieving your outcomes, you want to know what you did well so you can repeat your successes.

Process evaluation (Valle et al., 2007) can help you:
•       Document your work
•       Monitor and improve delivery
•       Identify barriers and challenges
•       Ensure adherence to your implementation plan
•       Maintain accountability and quality control
•       Provide a context for understanding outcome evaluation results
•       Provide timely feedback during the training, not just after it is completed

At a minimum, you will want to use process evaluation to determine the quality of your trainings and improve delivery where you can. This can be done fairly simply by asking questions about whether participants liked the training, whether they learned what they hoped to learn (and also what you hoped they would learn), if the facilities and tools such as handouts or presentation materials were conducive to learning, and whether the trainer did a good job.

For each of your trainings, prepare to conduct a simple process evaluation by answering, where appropriate, the following questions (Fisher et al., 2006):
•       What organizational characteristics, identified in your initial assessments, were addressed in your training?
•       What characteristics of the individual participants, identified in your initial assessments, were addressed in your training?
•       What was the participants’ satisfaction with the training?
•       What was the staff’s perception of the training?
•       What amount of content (i.e. dosage) did the participants receive?
•       Did the training follow the basic plan for delivery?

Because some aspects of process evaluation need to be done before you deliver the training, such as your organizational and individual assessments, and others need to be done during the training, you should plan your process evaluation before you actually conduct your trainings.

In the Appendix, the Process Evaluation Questions and Activities tip sheet and the Process Evaluation Plan Worksheet on pages 77 and 78, respectively, will help you plan this part of your evaluation.

Case study: The Center for Community Peace plans a process evaluation


To help determine if trainings are implemented as planned and with high quality, the center plans to conduct a process evaluation of its trainings. Before the trainings, the center’s director of program evaluation and improvement, Josiah Stevens, works with staff, the participant work group from the alternative high school, and the selected trainer to decide on key process evaluation activities that will maximize time and resources.


Given the organizational assessment done earlier, the center understands the kinds of practices and policies that need to be examined during the training to increase the high school’s effectiveness in reducing negative incidents and increasing positive school climate. The center plans to use short surveys and interviews to determine how well training participants feel the organizational context is addressed.

The center also plans to adapt a participant satisfaction survey used in other programs. The trainer will use sign-in sheets to record how many people attend the planned training sessions. This information will help the center determine if enough participants received sufficient dosage of the trainings offered.

Finally, Stevens will debrief the trainer, selected staff involved in the trainings, and the participant work group to assess the quality of the training process. He will also look for ideas that may help focus follow-up activities.

Plan outcome evaluation to determine if training goals and outcomes were achieved
The focus of outcome evaluation is to determine if your training made the difference you intended. You are measuring the progress and impact of your goals and outcomes including whether there have been actual changes in behaviors.

A retrospective post test is the least time and resource intensive of the various outcome evaluation models you could use, but you may also elect to conduct a pretest/posttest design for determining if you met your goals and outcomes. This typically involves administering the same, simple questionnaire to participants before and after training so you can assess how individuals’ knowledge, skills, or attitudes changed. This comparison requires matching the pre-and posttests through a unique identifier. A unique code might be made up of the first four letters of the city/ town in which participants were born and the first four letters of the first elementary school they attended. One tip: Pre-and posttest questionnaires can also include process evaluation questions.

As part of your post-training follow-up, you can also plan to have participants complete a questionnaire to assess how they have used what they learned and what successes and barriers they have experienced back at the workplace. Follow-up evaluation can also include discussions by phone or even site visits to observe changed behaviors in the workplace.
Your ability to conduct outcome evaluation may very well depend on available resources. Consider prioritizing resources for outcome evaluation initially for those trainings that involve more intense skill building rather than one-time, “foot-in-the-door” trainings.

In the Appendix on page 79, you will find a Tip sheet of Sample Outcome Evaluation Questions.
Learn more: The following resources discuss how to develop and implement training evaluation, including information on ethics and confidentiality considerations in data collection.
•       Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Programs Evaluation Guide—www.cdc.gov/pubs/ncipc.aspx
•       W.K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook—www.wkkf. org/Pubs/Tools/Evaluation/Pub770.pdf
Case study: The Center for Community Peace plans an outcome evaluation
While planning its process evaluation, the center also takes some time to outline its outcome evaluation, including plans for:
•       Conducting a pretest/posttest survey to determine changes in participants’ awareness and knowledge of the identified topics. The survey will also assess whether participants learned new skills.
•       Follow-up written and/or telephone surveys ideally at 3-, 6-, and 9-month intervals to determine if learned skills are being used in the organizational context and measuring whether the goals and outcomes of the training are being achieved.

Center staff plans to talk with school administrative staff about the resources needed to conduct process evaluation at varying intervals. While acknowledging that follow-up is often key to addressing barriers and potential problems while also helping to ensure new skills are put into practice, the center may not have enough resources of its own to do all the process evaluation activities. Center staff plans to ask the school’s administration for help completing these tasks.


Determine appropriate follow-up activities


As professionals go back to their workplaces and start to implement the new skills you taught them, they will inevitably encounter barriers and distractions. Research has shown that follow-up activities or “boosters” are important for increasing the likelihood that new knowledge and skills will be put into practice.

Although there is no formula for follow-up activities, we recommend you develop follow-up plans that do the following as resources allow:
•       Provide technical assistance after training
•       Assess and support organizational integration
•       Consider mentoring, coaching, trainer “on call,” and/or practicum
•       Use ongoing training for incremental learning and to reinforce material
•       Encourage participants to go back and share the impact of the training on their work
•       Use follow-up to inform training evaluation

Another kind of follow-up is facilitating the establishment of a collaborative learning environment among the participants after the training. Participants meet regularly to discuss how they are using their new knowledge and skills, meeting challenges, and problem solving.
When determining the right level of follow-up, consider how much change the knowledge or skills you teach represent for participants. The newer or less familiar the skills, the more follow-up may be needed. You will also need to assess the trainer’s capacity for follow-up and participants’ willingness to engage after the training.

Case study: The Center for Community Peace works on follow-up plans
When developing its evaluation plans, the center decided to follow up with participants using written or telephone surveys at 3-, 6-, and 9-month intervals to find out if learned skills are being applied and what kind of impacts they are having. The center is most interested in finding out whether school staff are more effectively interrupting and even preventing sexualized bullying and harassment, describing more activities and events related to modeling positive interactions, and enforcing existing policies and practices.

Through telephone interviews with key participants including administrators, staff, and youth, Josiah Stevens, evaluation director, discovers that several young people have been working to identify factors that students feel increase positive school climate and are promoting those factors within the school through existing clubs. Staff report that enforcing existing policies and practices has been more easily supported by administrators than enactment of new rules perceived as needed by staff. It is determined that administrators are not unwilling to move ahead; rather, they are unsure of how to do so. The center is asked to do an in-service workshop to help develop a plan.

Because the center’s evaluation and the alternative high school’s own internal tracking show that incidents of sexualized bullying and harassment have gone down since the trainings, school district administrators have invited center and school representatives—both staff and youth—to give a presentation at an upcoming meeting about successful strategies that could be generalized throughout the entire district.
Think about how to sustain learning

While many professionals working in prevention agree that sustainability is important, not everyone agrees on what sustainability means or exactly how to accomplish it. A Sustainability Toolkit for Prevention Using Getting to Outcomes (Johnson et al., 2009) summarizes some of the key findings gleaned from research that provide insight into what sustainable organizations are doing well.

First, as with many other aspects of prevention work, successful sustainability involves deliberate planning. It is important to start thinking about sustainability at the beginning of your planning process. Planning for sustainability means considering some of the strategies suggested in this guide, including how to:
•       Connect prevention goals with your training efforts
•       Maximize your existing resources and target your efforts in meaningful ways
•       Increase the relevance of your work by involving diverse groups from your communities
•       Identify and build training capacity in your organization so you can conduct more trainings and improve your existing trainings as you learn more from process and outcome evaluations

•     Develop and strengthen relationships and partnerships vital to your success

 

Think about key leverage points to maximize your efforts to sustain your work. One example comes from the National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC), the nation’s principle information and resource center for all aspects of sexual violence. NSVRC noticed prevention advocates were often at odds with the media. Without fully understanding sexual violence and under tight deadlines, journalists frequently misrepresented or sensationalized issues in ways that perpetuated destructive myths, such as blaming the victim or stereotyping survivors and perpetrators.

To begin addressing communications issues, the NSVRC initially partnered with the Poynter Institute, a training center for journalists, to try and create better, on-going communications between advocates and journalists by developing a series of seminars on sexual violence beginning with a series of three-day training seminars. The only requirement was that advocates and journalists had to participate in pairs. An advocate who wanted to attend had to find a local journalist who would also attend. The seminars focused on addressing inaccuracies and destructive myths about sexual violence while also building important, longer-term professional relationships and social bonds between advocates and reporters that led to better communications and reporting.

To sustain what was learned and built within the trainings, all participants were given tools to use after the trainings, such as a listserv, to maintain communications and continued learning. The trainings, ongoing communications, and tools helped both advocates and journalists continue to use their new relationships to do fact checking or share perspectives when stories emerged. The continued demand for the trainings also fosters ongoing positive communications.

Training tips to help build sustainability

Sustainability must be addressed on two levels: 1) ensuring the sustainability of your training plans, and 2) ensuring that trainees can sustain what they learn once they return to their workplaces.
Consider your capacities first. What can you do to ensure your continued capacity to provide high-quality trainings to your constituencies? Think about the following:
•       Including potential learners in the early stages of your training plan development will help focus your resources and goals, leading to more effective trainings. This will also help strengthen your existing relationships or help start new ones.
•       Making cultural competency a consistent priority in how and what you are teaching will also increase the relevance—and potential sustainability—of your work. Participants will feel more invested in your process, plans, and activities if you are working with them in culturally sensitive ways.
•       Being realistic about the resources you have to devote to training will help prioritize your decisions about what you do.
•       Routinely evaluating your results—and asking participants for candid feedback—will provide the information you need to continually improve your trainings and help determine which efforts are worth sustaining.
•       Periodically taking time to update your plans and reexamine community needs and priorities can guide you in making necessary changes that will help keep your plans relevant.
Remember to do periodic refreshers for your own staff to make sure everyone is still on the same page about your organization’s prevention and training goals.

Now consider the professionals you are training. How can you help them sustain what they take with them from your trainings? One of the most important strategies is to go beyond training at the individual level. If the people you train leave their organizations, they take their new knowledge and skills with them. Make it a priority to train multiple levels of staff (e.g., management and line staff). This will help build organizational capacity to support the sustainability of primary prevention efforts.


Other factors to consider:


•       Readiness. Make it your business to know where organization’s stand in their readiness to engage in prevention efforts. Perhaps part of the preparation for or follow-up to your trainings is to determine what sort of policies and procedures need to change to support change in the workplace. Work with organization leaders to address these needed changes, empower trainees to identify and push for them, then follow-up to help bring about the changes.
•       Redundancy. Think of ways to repeat key pieces of information for participants on how prevention can be accomplished in a variety of activities as setting priorities, allocating resources, building partnerships, or doing cost/benefit analyses. Hearing the same message over and over -- in different ways, in different contexts and using different ideas appropriate to various activities -- will help participants remember important information and also demonstrate how repeated messaging is necessary to help sustain their own prevention efforts.


•       Resources. Suggest meaningful ways for organizations to build their own capacities for prevention, including sharing resources and creating new partnerships. One strategy to try is cross-training several different organizations at once. It conserves your resources while facilitating connections between organizations that might not have connected before. Another strategy is to conduct training-of-trainers to help extend your training capacities.

One strategy that will help you and the organizations you are working with is to focus. As we have said before, you cannot train everyone. Prioritize your list of potential trainees and start with a few key organizations first. Build in some review and reflection time to assess how your first few trainings went, then make changes to improve your work before moving ahead.

Also, encourage the professionals you are training to prioritize. In your trainings, make concrete suggestions about where to start their change efforts when they go back to their organizations. Encourage them to stop and notice their successes so they can repeat them. They will build credibility and confidence as they move forward, which will help build sustainability, too.

Review progress and put the results to work

Once you have implemented your training plan a few times, you will have gathered some very useful information that can help you improve your work. Process evaluation should reveal how to deliver trainings more effectively; outcome evaluation should reveal whether your trainings are having the intended impacts in both the short and long term.

Incorporating follow-up activities appropriate for the groups being trained will help you continue to guide professionals toward more meaningful sexual and/or intimate partner violence prevention work as well as allow you to maintain important relationships within the community to help strengthen your work. Finally, thinking about ways to sustain your prevention work and the work of your community partners early on in your training plan development will help you wisely use the resources you have now and develop ways of supporting your training plans in the future.

 
Conclusion: Train, Learn, and Train Again


Congratulations! You have made it to the end of the Training Guide. If all of the steps presented seem overwhelming or beyond the scope of your organization’s resources or capacity right now, remember -- it is not necessary to incorporate every step right away. Start with the steps you can do and build in additional steps as your training plan evolves.
As you develop, deliver, and evaluate your organization’s training plan, keep this Guide handy. Take advantage of the tools found in the Appendix, and check out the additional resources noted throughout the Guide. The Guide and tools should help you plan, deliver, then fine-tune your trainings, learning about ways to improve your work as you move ahead.

We wish you success in your training efforts!

 
Appendix


This Appendix contains additional resources and tools to help you develop, deliver, and evaluate your training plan. Each work sheet can be tailored to fit the needs of your planning process.

 
Tip sheet: Suggested Professionals to Train for Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence Prevention
Whom to Train: Youth-serving agencies
Examples       Rationale      Suggested training content     Example
outcomes
Leadership, staff, board members, volunteers  Provides access to universal and selected populations
Infrastructure exists for local collaboration
Closed environment provides opportunities for testing and closer monitoring of what works and what doesn’t work      Risk and protective factors for sexual, intimate partner, and/or teen dating violence
How to identify, intervene, and address sexualized bullying and other abusive behaviors
Bystander interventions
Community responsibility for sexual and intimate partner violence prevention and the promotion of healthy relationships.
        Articulate primary prevention principles
Articulate risk and protective factors for sexual, intimate, and/or teen dating violence
Work with selected populations on interventions to minimize risk and increase protective factors
Develop peer leadership for sexual and teen dating violence prevention
Develop, implement, and evaluate programs, policies, and practices for increased prevention effectiveness
Prepare and mobilize communities to embrace and commit to programs, policies, and practices that prevent sexual, intimate partner, and or teen dating violence
Work with parents, families, and communities on building assets and promoting positive youth development to prevent risk behaviors from developing
Promote community responsibility for  healthy relationships
Collect key data on strategy implementation and use data to improve programs, practices, and policies
Suggested resources:
•       A Place to Start: A Resource Kit for Preventing Sexual Violence by the Sexual Violence Prevention Program of the Minnesota Department of Health; see the section on youth development –
•       Our Vulnerable Teenagers: Their Victimization, Its Consequences, and Directions for Prevention and Intervention; a review of research on teen victimization and its impact on America’s youth as well as information on promising prevention and intervention techniques –
Whom to Train: Childcare/daycare agencies
Examples       Rationale      Suggested training content     Example
outcomes
Leadership, staff, volunteers, licensing boards      Provides access to universal populations
Opportunities to focus on activities at the relationship level with parents and/or guardians
Opportunities to address risk factors before they develop    Understanding risk and protective factors for sexual and intimate partner violence
Age-appropriate content related to sexual and intimate partner violence prevention that can be added to or integrated into existing curriculum (e.g., respect, empathy, safety of others)
Bystander interventions
Community responsibility for sexual and intimate partner violence prevention and the promotion of healthy relationships.   Articulate primary prevention principles
Articulate risk and protective factors for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
Develop, implement, and evaluate programs, policies, and practices for increased prevention effectiveness
Prepare and mobilize communities to embrace and commit to programs, policies, and practices that prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
Work with parents, families, and communities on building assets and promoting positive youth development to prevent risk behaviors from developing
Promote community responsibility for  healthy relationships
Collect key data on strategy implementation and use data to improve programs, practices, and policies
Suggested resources:
•       National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women (VAWnet) has a special collection of resources on working with children toward a healthy, nonviolent future –
•       Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Within Youth-serving Organizations: Getting Started on Policies and Procedures –
•       Reframing Child Abuse and Neglect for Increased Understanding and Engagement from Prevent Child Abuse America –

Whom to Train: Faith-based organizations
Examples       Rationale      Suggested training content     Example
outcomes
        Provides access to universal and selected populations
Unique opportunity to implement comprehensive activities, or activities that impact the same populations, across the social ecological framework of individuals, relationships, and communities

        Understanding risk and protective factors for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
Bystander interventions
Age-appropriate content related to sexual violence, intimate partner violence and/or teen dating violence prevention that can be added to or integrated into existing curriculum (e.g., healthy relationships,  respect, empathy, safety of others)
Community responsibility for sexual and intimate partner violence prevention and the promotion of healthy relationships.   Articulate primary prevention principles
Articulate risk and protective factors for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
Work with selected populations on interventions to minimize risk and increase protective factors
Develop, implement, and evaluate programs, policies, and practices for increased prevention effectiveness
Prepare and mobilize communities to embrace and commit to programs, policies, and practices that prevent sexual violence
Work with parents, families, and communities on building assets and promoting positive youth development to prevent risk behaviors from developing
Promote community responsibility for  healthy relationships
Collect key data on strategy implementation and use data to improve programs, practices, and policies

        How to identify, intervene, and address sexualized bullying and other abusive behaviors
Identify and address norms of masculinity
Bystander interventions
Age-appropriate content related to sexual and teen dating violence prevention that can be added to or integrated into existing curriculum (e.g., healthy relationships,  respect, empathy, safety of others)
Community responsibility for sexual, intimate partner, and teen dating violence prevention and the promotion of healthy relationships    Articulate primary prevention principles
Articulate risk and protective factors for sexual, intimate partner, and teen dating violence
Work with selected populations on interventions to minimize risk and increase protective factors
Develop peer leadership for sexual, intimate partner and/or teen dating violence prevention
Develop, implement, and evaluate programs, policies, and practices for increased prevention effectiveness
Prepare and mobilize communities to embrace and commit to programs, policies, and practices that prevent sexual violence
Work with parents, families, and communities on building assets and promoting positive youth development to prevent risk behaviors from developing
Promote community responsibility for  healthy relationships
Collect key data on strategy implementation and use data to improve programs, practices, and policies
Suggested resources:
•       Family Violence Prevention Fund Toolkit for Working with Men and Boys to Prevent Gender Based Violence –http://toolkit.endabuse.org/Home.html
•     

Whom to Train: Violence prevention organizations and coalitions
Examples       Rationale      Suggested training content     Example
outcomes
Agencies and organizations with a mission to end sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence:
•       Rape crisis centers/women’s shelters
•       Women’s health centers
•       Men’s groups organized to be allies to prevent violence against women
•       Research centers
•       State and community coalitions
•       Board members and constituents for any of the above   Mission mandate
Existing infrastructure
Increased readiness    Primary prevention principles
Risk and protective factors for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
Programs, policies, and practices that address sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence prevention
Methods for garnering community responsibility and/or support for sexual and/ or intimate partner violence prevention and the promotion of  healthy relationships
Goals and benefits of evaluating programs, policies, and practices
Community responsibility for sexual and intimate partner violence prevention and the promotion of healthy relationships.   Articulate primary prevention principles
Articulate risk and protective factors for sexual and intimate partner violence
Develop, implement, and evaluate programs, policies, and practices for increased prevention effectiveness
Prepare and mobilize communities to embrace and commit to programs, policies, and practices that prevent sexual and intimate partner violence
Promote community responsibility for  healthy relationships
Collect key data on strategy implementation and use data to improve programs, practices, and policies

Agencies and organizations with a mission to promote protective factors for families and communities and/or to reduce risk factors associated with sexual violence
Agencies that address shared protective factors:
•       Head Start programs
•       Chambers of Commerce/local business coalitions
•       Mayor’s or governor’s task forces
•       Local and state government agencies and departments including DFCS workers, legislators, and policy makers
•       Healthy family, youth, and/or community coalitions

Agencies that address shared risk factors:
•       Community psychologists
•       Family counselors
•       Health care providers
•       Teen pregnancy prevention providers
•       Substance abuse prevention workers
•       Harm reduction outreach workers
•       MADD/SADD coalitions
•       Local and state government agencies and departments including legislators and policy makers
        Provide access to universal and selected populations
Many existing infrastructures on which to build potential local collaborations
Opportunities to address shared protective and risk factors for different behaviors and community characteristics

        Risk and protective factors for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
Programs, policies, and practices that address sexual violence and/or intimate partner prevention
Methods for garnering community responsibility and/or support for sexual violence and/or intimate partner prevention and the promotion of  healthy relationships
Note: Be open to cross-training on other issues to better understand shared protective and risk factors and to identify opportunities for enhanced collaboration       Same as above
Suggested resources:
Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Promote Sexual Health and Responsible Sexual Behavior – www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/sexualhealth/call.htm

 
Whom to Train: School and higher education personnel
Examples       Rationale      Suggested training content     Example outcomes
Primary and secondary school personnel:
•       Administrators
•       Faculty/staff
•       Cafeteria workers
•       Bus drivers
•       Custodians
•       Safe and Drug Free School liaisons    Provides access to youth


Provides access to universal and selected populations
Infrastructure exists for local collaboration
Closed environment provides opportunities for testing and closer monitoring of what works and doesn’t work   Risk and protective factors for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
How to identify, intervene, and address sexualized bullying and other abuse behaviors
Bystander interventions
Content related to sexual violence and/or teen dating violence prevention that can be added to or integrated into existing curriculum (e.g., health or sex education, bullying prevention, character education programs, healthy relationships and respect, empathy, safety of others)
Changing school culture
Community responsibility for sexual, intimate partner, and teen dating violence prevention and the promotion of healthy relationships.   Articulate primary prevention principles
Articulate risk and protective factors for sexual, intimate partner, and teen dating violence
Work with selected populations on interventions to minimize risk and increase protective factors
Develop peer leadership for sexual and teen dating violence prevention
Develop, implement, and evaluate programs, policies, and practices for increased prevention effectiveness
Prepare and mobilize communities to embrace and commit to programs, policies, and practices that prevent sexual, intimate partner, and teen dating violence
Work with parents, families, and communities on building assets and promoting positive youth development to prevent risk behaviors from developing
Promote community responsibility for  healthy relationships
Collect key data on strategy implementation and use data to improve programs, practices, and policies

Suggested resources:


•       A Guide to Addressing Teen Dating and Sexual Violence in School
•       Recommended Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexual Assault Response and Prevention on Campus – 
Whom to Train: Healthcare providers
Examples       Rationale      Suggested training content     Example
outcomes
•       Nurse practitioners
•       Physicians assistants
•       Local health department staff
•       Hospital staff including community liaisons
•       Mental health professionals
•       Counselors
•       Primary care clinics
•       Pediatric offices
•       Health care and hospital associations Provides access to universal and selected populations

        Risk and protective factors for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
Bystander interventions


Community resources for persons seeking support when potential perpetration behaviors have been identified
        Articulate primary prevention principles
Articulate risk and protective factors for sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
Work with selected populations on interventions to minimize risk and increase protective factors
Develop, implement, and evaluate programs, policies, and practices for increased prevention effectiveness
Prepare and mobilize communities to embrace and commit to programs, policies, and practices that prevent sexual violence and/or intimate partner violence
Work with parents, families, and communities on building assets and promoting positive youth development to prevent risk behaviors from developing
Promote community responsibility for healthy relationships
Collect key data on strategy implementation and use data to improve programs, practices, and policies

Suggested resources:


•       International Association of Forensic Nurses has a project to expand the capacity of forensic nurses to address the primary prevention of sexual violence. As part of this project, they have materials on their web site that may be useful for all health care providers – www.iafn.org
•       A Place to Start: A Resource Kit for Preventing Sexual Violence by the Sexual Violence Prevention Program of the Minnesota Department of Health; see the section for health care providers – www.health.state.mn.us/injury/pub/kit/index.cfm

Tip sheet: Nine Principles of Effective Prevention Programs At a Glance
The following nine principles are distilled from the review of a large body of literature on effective prevention programs that was summarized in an article in the American Psychologist titled “What works in prevention: Principles of Effective Prevention Programs” (Nation et al., 2003).
1.      Comprehensive: Strategies should include multiple components and affect multiple settings to address a wide range of risk and protective factors of the target problem.
2.      Varied teaching methods: Strategies should include multiple teaching methods, including some type of active, skills-based component.
3.      Sufficient dosage: Participants need to be exposed to enough of the activity for it to have an effect.
4.      Theory-driven: Preventive strategies should have a scientific justification or logical rationale.
5.      Positive relationships: Programs should foster strong, stable, positive relationships between children and adults.
6.      Appropriately timed: Program activities should happen at a time (developmentally) that can have maximal impact in a participant’s life.
7.      Socio-culturally relevant: Programs should be tailored to fit within cultural beliefs and practices of specific groups as well as local community norms.
8.      Outcome evaluation: A systematic outcome evaluation is necessary to determine whether a program or strategy worked.
9.      Well-trained staff: Programs need to be implemented by staff members who are sensitive, competent, and have received sufficient training, support, and supervision.

 
Worksheet: Criteria for Selecting Trainers
Training:                                                                                  
Name(s) of potential trainer(s):                                                           
Trainer skills Y/N     Additional comments
Knows subject matter (has studied/experienced topic, has given similar trainings)          
Knows audience (respects and listens to participants, reads verbal and nonverbal responses and adapts)           
Understands group dynamics and how to teach to different learning styles           
Culturally sensitive (aware of personal views and beliefs shaped by own culture, understands how participants’ cultures shape their perspectives)        
Respects differences of opinion and lifestyles (inclusive, neutral and nonjudgmental)       
Knows self (aware, confident, open to suggestions, responds easily to audience)            
Professional demeanor (lively, enthusiastic, flexible, supportive, uses humor appropriately)        
Engages an audience (uses varied presentation techniques, makes clear and easy-to-remember remarks, illustrates subject matter in different ways)              
Compassionate (understands potential emotional impact of material and how to handle reactions)            
Open to evaluation            
Adapted from “Trainer Skills Checklist,” Trainer’s Guide for Cancer Education, National Cancer Institute
 
Worksheet: Background Information for Training Plan Development
This training is for:                                                              
The Questions  What do we know already?       What else do we need to know?

What are the needs and problems to address?             

Why are we doing this training?
              

Whom are we training?

Who is helping us develop the training?
              

What are the core topics to cover for this group in this training?
What additional content should be covered in this training?
              

What is important to consider about the organizational context of the group we are training?
•       Potential barriers
•       Existing strengths            

What do we know about the readiness of individuals to participate in this training?
       

What kinds of resources do we need?
                

Using our selection criteria, who are the best trainers for this specific training and why?
       
       

What are the best approaches for training the selected group?
       
       

What will ensure this training is done with cultural competence?
       
       

What do we anticipate our evaluation needs will be for this training?
              

What do we anticipate our follow-up needs will be for this training?

              
 
 Case Study: The Center for Community Peace
Worksheet: Background Information for Training Plan Development
This training is for: Alternative High School                                     
The Questions  What do we know already?       What else do we need to know?

What are the needs and problems to address?

       
•       Community coalition has discovered concerns and incidents among local youth in general about sexualized bullying and sexual assault.
•       As a result of looking into the issue, it has been discovered that these issues are of particular concern to youth in the alternative high school.      
•       More details including available data and/or reports on incidents from the alternative high school.
•       What are the exact behaviors students are seeing and/or experiencing?
•       What do students think are the underlying causes of the problem? Why is it happening?
•       Who are the perpetrators?
•       Who are the victims?
•       Do students and school officials see any patterns to the sexualized bullying and abuse?
•       What do students think the school is doing to address the problem?
•       What do students think is the best way to address the situation with school officials and the perpetrators?
•       Does this school admit that there is a problem? 
•       If so, what are the exact behaviors school officials are seeing?
•       What do officials think are the root causes of the problem? Why is it happening?

Why are we doing this training?

       
•       Students are complaining about sexualized bullying and other forms of abuse.
•       Students and parents want the problem resolved.
•       The school district needs to play an active role in resolving the problem.
•       The coalition has asked us to provide training.      
•       What is the school’s level of comfort and openness with having us do trainings to address the issues?

Who are we training?

       
•       Teachers, coaches, and administrative staff are all logical choices.
       
•       What do students think the school is doing to address the problem?
•       Who do students think should address the problem?
•       What does the school say it is doing to address the problem? 
•       Who does the school think is responsible for addressing the problem?
•       Are there policies in place and consequences for breaking rules?
•       Is the school willing to take an active role?
•       If so, what do school officials think is the best way to address the situation with victims and the perpetrators?

Who is helping us develop the training?

       
•       Two coalition members, Jorge Chavez (parent) and Anna Warren (police department detective, Special Victims Unit)
       
•       Who among school staff and/or administrators would be good resources for helping to shape the trainings?
•       Are there students who might have valuable input to help make the trainings more relevant and concrete?

What are the core topics to cover for this group in this training?

What additional content should be covered in this training?

       
•       Basic Knowledge: What is sexualized bullying and abuse?
•       Consequences: What happens to victims and perpetrators?  Why should sexualized bullying and abuse be considered a problem that needs to be addressed at the school level?
•       Responsibility: The policies schools should put in place.
•       Empowerment: The actions students, parents, and school staff can take in identifying and preventing bullying and abuse.   
•       Statistics: Get concrete examples of how sexualized bullying and abuse is affecting students (without breaking any confidences).
•       Consequences: Local and state laws – Find out the exact responsibilities schools must assume and the risks school employees have, personal and professional, if they do not implement and enforce an intervention and prevention program.

What is important to consider about the organizational context of the group we are training?

•       Potential barriers

•       Existing strengths
       
•       Since the issues emerged late in the school year and potential planning meetings can’t happen until the spring, it probably makes sense to take extra time over the summer and plan on having the trainings occur in the fall.
•       There are some possible concerns that a few school staff don’t really believe the issues are real. Others disagree about what constitutes sexually harmful behavior. These issues will need to be addressed in the trainings.
•       Several staff have stepped forward and already volunteered to be part of the discussion. They could be potential advocates.      
•       Prospective dates for trainings in the fall once a slate of topics is developed.
•       What are the attitudes and knowledge levels among staff and administrators?

What do we know about the readiness of individuals to participate in this training?
       
•       Three staff and several administrators have stepped forward to participate in a focus group to discuss the issues, why it’s happening in the school, and what the trainings should cover. 
•       How do we assess the readiness of other staff and administrators to participate in the trainings without spending too much time and resources just in this one area?

What kinds of resources do we need?


•       The school has offered space, time, use of copiers and A/V equipment, etc. for the trainings in the fall.
•       Still need to work out times for teachers to attend trainings.
•       Will the district/school/union allow CLE credit for teachers who attend to boost incentives?
•       Will the school/district make the trainings mandatory?
•       How will the school help promote the importance of the trainings and encourage teachers to participate?
•       How will time for additional staff such as bus drivers, cafeteria workers, and other administrative staff be budgeted?
•       Do all personnel need the same content and dosage?

Using our selection criteria, who are the best trainers for this specific training and why?
•       Center staff will be able to handle these trainings. 
•       What sort of clearances and permissions will we need to have two students participate as co-trainers?
•       What kind of support will the students need to prepare for the trainings?

What are the best approaches for training the selected group?

       
•       The center wants to orient the trainings toward promoting the positive behaviors they want to see adopted by both teachers and students, while also educating about which negative, harmful behaviors need to be stopped.
•       Trainings should be as interactive as possible and include role plays to help participants practice using new skills.      
•       Need to know more about previous trainings that have been done at the school, including level of knowledge about positive approaches.

What will ensure this training is done with cultural competence?    
•       Inclusion of local coalition members, staff, and students from diverse communities in planning has already begun.   
•       We need to know more about ethnic and special-needs populations within the school community to ensure we are addressing their unique needs.

What do we anticipate our evaluation needs will be for this training?

       
•       Use of existing pre- and post-training surveys to find out levels of knowledge, skills, and behaviors.
•       Use of existing training surveys to probe participants’ experience and satisfaction with the training content, activities, and trainer engagement.      
•       May need to tailor existing surveys a bit to better fit the audience.
•       Would like to survey participants at 3-, 6-, and 9-month intervals to find out what skills they’re actually using and whether anecdotal evidence indicates that incidents go down.
•       Would also like to survey students and parents at the same intervals to document perceived changes and impact.

What do we anticipate our follow-up needs will be for this training?
       
•       School staff has already asked for follow-ups to talk over how implementation of new skills goes and to help them address new questions and issues that arise.  
•       Will the school consider repeating the training every year to keep the information fresh and make sure new staff receives training?
•       Will the school also consider releasing specific incident data (instead of just anecdotal evidence) to determine whether the trainings are having a real impact on incidents?

 
Worksheet: Use a Logic Model to Map Plan Details


Like a good road map, a simple logic model can be a very useful tool to show you where you want to go and how to get there. If you choose to use this tool, a logic model can provide a way to summarize at a glance the important details of your training plan, from goals and outcomes to intended evaluation targets. In addition to helping you keep your key ideas and strategies in focus, logic models can also be used to help you clearly communicate your plans to others.
We have provided a blank Logic Model Template starting on page XX for you to copy and use as needed. You can make copies for taking notes and developing a rough draft of your training plan overall or you can make individual copies for training development each time you work with a new group. We have also provided a writeable copy of the logic model template on the CD Rom that accompanies this Guide so you can tailor it as needed.
Fill out the logic model
Using the Background Information for Training Plan Development worksheet, Whom To Tr in table, tip sheets, worksheets, and other information you have gathered, fill in the following information:
•       This training is for—The name of the group or organization receiving the training.
•       Goal(s)—The main goal you hope to accomplish by training the selected group. This goal answers the question, “Why are we doing this training?” It is okay to have more than one goal for a group.
•       Participants
o       Who will be trained?—Specific information you know about the group and/or individuals to be trained.
o       Who does the training?—Name(s) of the trainers you have chosen to work with the selected group.
•       Activities
o       Inputs—Resources needed for the training such as location, copies, food, audio/visual needs, etc.
o       Outputs—Specific activities that will occur as part of your training such as the delivery format, such as lecture/discussion, role plays, use of web-based activities, etc.
Note: This section will also include details about follow-up activities you decide to use for the group to be trained. We will prompt you later in the guide to complete this information when we describe follow-up activities in more detail.
•       Outcomes—The outcome statements you have developed, describing the specific changes you want to have happen as a result of your training including:
o       Short-term—What will people learn
o       Intermediate—What will they do
o       Long-term—What will change
As you move through various sections of the Guide, you can also add the following information to the logic model:
•       The best training approaches for the participants.
•       The process and outcome measures needed to gauge your progress with the participants.
•       The tools you plan to use to evaluate those measures.

PARTICIPANTS
       
      ACTIVITIES      
OUTCOMES

Specific changes we want as a result of our training

1.      Who will be trained?

2.      Who will do the training?

        Inputs: Resources we need to do the training: Outputs: What will occur during the training:     
SHORT TERM    
INTERMEDIATE  
LONG TERM

What will people learn?        What will they do?     What will change?
Training Methods                      PROCESS/OUTCOME MEASURES AND TOOLS

              ACTIVITIES
OUTCOMES
Specific changes we want as a result of our training:

1.      Who will be trained?
-School staff and teachers
-Ancillary staff, such as bus drivers and custodians

2.      Who will do the training?
-Center staff
-Two students
        Inputs: Resources we need to do the training:
•       Center staff & students
•       Meeting space at the school
•       Time where all the school staff can meet together
•       Food and beverages for participants
•       Hand outs      Outputs: What will occur during the training:
•       Presentation to staff and administration with discussion about information gathered from students and staff  re: the problem
•       Presentation and discussion about sexualized bullying and sexual violence
•       Small group discussion about opportunities for modeling positive, respective behavior
•       Role plays of typical scenarios that present an opportunity to model positive, respectful behavior
•       Brainstorm ways to create a youth-adult plan to make the school safer
       
SHORT TERM
•       Increased understanding of the problem of sexualized bullying at the school
•       Increased knowledge about risk and protective factors related to sexualized bullying
•       Increased ability to model positive respectful behavior
•       School resources dedicated to addressing the issue   
INTERMEDIATE
•       Increased modeling of positive, respectful behavior by staff in the hallways and classrooms
•       Development of a youth-adult plan to decrease sexualized bullying in the school
       
LONG TERM
•       Decrease in sexualized bullying among students
•       Improved school climate
Training Methods                      PROCESS/OUTCOME MEASURES AND TOOLS
How we will know we have had an impact and
the tools we will use to measure that impact?
Best methods to use for this training?
•       Presentation
•       Small and large group discussions
•       Interactive
•       Role play                      •       Pretest/posttest knowledge and attitudes surveys
•       School climate surveys
•       Training and facilitator surveys      •       Follow-up surveys at 3-, 6-, and 9-month intervals to measure change
•       Focus groups with staff, students, and parents        •       Same as intermediate
•       Repeating training every year to help build sustainability

 Adapted from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2007)

Tip Sheet: Overview of Training Approaches and Methods

Many of the excerpts in this tip sheet come from a useful online source developed by the National Cancer Institute called the Trainer’s Guide for Cancer Education. This guide discusses adult learning in detail and outlines how to plan and implement a training, including optimum room set-ups, assessment worksheets, icebreakers, training methods, and evaluation. To find out more, check out the full guide at:
Use adult learning principles

It will be useful to understand some of the basic principles of adult learning. The following short overview will help you make some high-level decisions about the best approaches to take to enhance the learning experience of the diverse groups you will be training.
Adult learners retain (Knowles, 1998):
•       20% of what they hear
•       30% of what they see
•       50% of what they see and hear
•       70% of what they see, hear, and say (e.g., discuss, explain to others)
•       90% of what they see, hear, say, and do

Clearly, to help your participants retain more of what they learn in your trainings, they need to hear a lecture or a discussion and see a demonstration or visual aides and discuss the material and have a chance to do something with the new information and skills.
This chart from the Trainer’s Guide for Cancer Education shows the role of the trainer in facilitating optimum participant learning.
Participants learn best when…  The role of the trainer is…
•       They feel valued and respected for the experiences and perspectives they bring to the training       •       Elicit participants’ experiences and perspectives
•       The learning experience is active     •       Actively engage participants in their learning experience
•       The learning experience actually fills their immediate needs •       Identify participants’ needs and tie training concepts to those needs
•       They accept responsibility for their own learning     •       Make sure that training content and skills are directly relevant to participants’ experiences so they will want to learn
•       The learning is self-directed and meaningful to them  •       Involve participants in deciding on the content and skills that will be covered during the training
•       Their learning experience addresses ideas, feelings, and actions     •       Use multiple training methods that address knowledge, attitudes, and skills
•       New material is related to what participants already know    •       Use training methods that enable participants to establish this relationship and integration of new material
•       The learning environment is conducive to learning     •       Take measures to ensure the physical and social environment (training space) is safe, comfortable, and enjoyable
•       Learning is reinforced •       Use training methods that allow participants to practice new skills and ensure prompt, reinforcing feedback
•       Learning is applied immediately       •       Provide opportunities for participants to apply the new information and skills they have learned
•       Learning occurs in small groups       •       Use training methods that encourage participants to explore feelings, attitudes, and skills with other learners
•       The trainer values their contributions as both a learner and a teacher      •        Encourage participants to share their expertise and experiences with others

Use multiple strategies to address diverse learning styles
Different people learn in different ways. Because it is hard to know the individual learning styles of everyone in your trainings, assume all learning styles are present when you train. Include a variety of strategies in your trainings to address these different styles.
Here is a quick snapshot of different styles and training methods to use:
For participants who…  Use…
•       Resonate with abstract concepts and lectures  •       Case studies and discussions about theories and research
•       Learn best while observing others     •       Demonstrations and videos
•       Learn best from exercises      •       Role playing and other experiential activities
•       Learn best through visual means       •       Videos, images, and slides

Use the right training methods
Connect training strategies to your goals. You can do this by using specific methods that have been shown to correspond to the changes you hope to accomplish. For example, if you are teaching high school coaches about what sexual harassment means, you want to use training methods that reinforce increasing knowledge. If you also want them to learn new skills for identifying and interrupting sexual harassment in their schools, you want to use training methods designed to teach skills.
This list from Trainer’s Guide for Cancer Education shows some suggested training methods for accomplishing changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills:
Knowledge (Concepts, Facts)
•       Computer-assisted instruction
•       Discussion
•       Field trip or tours
•       Films, TV, tapes
•       Handouts
•       Lecture
•       Programmed instruction
•       Readings

Attitude (Feelings, Opinions)
•       Brainstorming
•       Case studies
•       Creative work
•       Field trips
•       Interview situations
•       Open-ended discussions
•       Panel presentations of survivors, family members, or health professionals
•       Role playing

Skills
•       Action plans
•       Demonstrations
•       Guided practice with feedback
•       Practicums
•       Role playing
•       Simulations

The following table offers a snapshot of training methods that can help achieve changes in participants’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior skills:
Training method Knowledge      Attitude       Skill
1.      Lecture X             
2.      Small group discussion X       X      
3.      Brainstorming  X       X      
4.      Case study     X       X       X
5.      Demonstration  X              X
6.      Role play      X       X       X
7.      Creative work  X       X      

Note: Add to the Training Methods section of your logic model which of the above methods you will use for the different professional groups you will be training.


Use participatory training

Participatory training works well with adults. It assumes that learners are all part of a communications network that is actively engaged in the training. This engagement means learners are sharing experiences, asking questions, using the trainer as a resource, practicing what has been taught, and even making mistakes. The more participants are actively involved in the learning process, the more likely they are to learn, remember, and use what you have taught them. This is especially important for affecting the kind of behavior change on which we’re focusing.


Participatory training also moves learners through all four phases of the adult learning cycle—experiencing, processing, generalizing, and applying—at least once during a 4-hour session.
One caution: Pay attention to professional norms when choosing appropriate educational strategies for some of your learners. Groups may vary, for example, in their comfort level for expressing feelings or their desire for interactive training methods.

 
Worksheet: Summary Checklist for Training Delivery
This training is for:                                                              
Key activities
(fill in details)      Who is responsible for getting this done?     By when?
Training dates/times confirmed:
              
Location confirmed:
              
Supplies and resources needed/obtained (i.e., paper, pens, copies, food):          
Presentation materials needed/obtained (i.e., audiovisual, computer, PowerPoint presentations, projector):
              
Training publicity materials developed/distributed:
              
Participants confirmed:
              
Transportation confirmed, as needed:
              
Other considerations:

Adapted and reprinted with permission from Getting To Outcomes with Developmental Assets: Ten Steps to Measuring Success in Youth Programs and Initiatives. Copyright ©2006 Search Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 800-888-7828; www.search-institute.org.
 
Tip Sheet: Process Evaluation Questions and Activities
Process evaluation questions   Evaluation activities  When conducted Resource requirements
1. What are the key organizational characteristics, identified in the initial assessments, addressed in your training?    Organizational assessments     Before  Expertise/time: low

2. What are the key characteristics of the individual participants, identified in the initial assessments, addressed in your training?      Demographics; readiness assessments        Before/during  Expertise/time: moderate
3. What is the participants’ satisfaction with the training?         Focus groups
Satisfaction surveys   During/after   Expertise/time: high/moderate
Expertise/time: low
4. What is the staff’s perception of the training?
        Focus groups
Interviews
Debriefing     During/after   Expertise/time: high/moderate
Expertise/time: moderate
Expertise/time: low
5. What were the participants’ dosages?
        Monitoring individual participation   During/after   Expertise/time: low
6. Did the training follow the basic plan for delivery?      Monitoring activities        During/after   Expertise/time: low
7. What was the training components’ level of quality?
        Monitoring activities by:
•       Trainers
•       Staff   During/after   •       Expertise/time: moderate
•       Expertise/time: high
Adapted and reprinted with permission from Getting To Outcomes with Developmental Assets: Ten Steps to Measuring Success in Youth Programs and Initiatives. Copyright ©2006 Search Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 800-888-7828; www.search-institute.org.
 
Worksheet: Plan a Process Evaluation
Process evaluation questions   Evaluation tools/method        Anticipated schedule for completion     Person responsible
1. What are the key organizational characteristics, identified in the initial assessments, addressed in your training?                  
2. What are the key characteristics of the individual participants, identified in the initial assessments, addressed in your training?                    
3. What is the participants’ satisfaction with the training?                       
4. What is the staff’s perception of the training?                  
5. What were the participants’ dosages?                     
6. Did the training follow the basic plan for delivery?                    
7. What was the training components’ level of quality?                     

 
Tip Sheet: Sample Outcome Evaluation Questions
Questions on a pretest/posttest questionnaire should pertain directly to material presented. For example, do not ask questions about sexual assault statistics if such data are not presented.
Questions to assess knowledge change can be true/false or multiple-choice questions. 
A sample question might read, “Is the following statement true or false? Low academic achievement is a risk factor for sexual violence perpetration.”
Questions to assess attitude change can also be true/false or multiple-choice questions. They can also be done with a Likert scale. A Likert Scale is a 5-, 7-, or 10-level scale that participants use to rate their level of agreement with a statement. Scales typically range from strongly disagree to strongly agree or from not at all to very much. A sample question might read, “Using a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being strongly disagree and 5 being strongly agree, respond to the following statement: I believe sexual violence can be prevented.”
Questions to assess skills change can ask about:
•       Willingness or intent to use the skills. A sample question might read, “Using a scale of 1 to 7, with 1 being strongly disagree and 7 being strongly agree, respond to this statement: I will talk with the parents in my program about ways to talk with their children about healthy dating relationships.” Or you can ask participants to list three things they will take action on when they get back to their work site. To increase the chances of success, include a suggested number of weeks or months within which these actions will take place.
•       Level of confidence in using the skills. A sample question might read, “Using a scale of 1 to 5, with one being strongly disagree and 5 being strong agree, respond to this statement: I feel comfortable talking with the youth in my group about healthy dating behaviors.”
•       Improved ability to do the skill. This type of question is aimed at determining the extent to which the training boosted ability or practice. A sample question might read, “Using a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being not at all and 10 being very much, respond to the following statement: This training has improved my ability to address sexually harmful behavior I see happening in the hallways at school.”
•       Utilization. For professionals who are already engaged in sexual violence prevention, you might ask about the extent to which the training contributed to the use of the particular skills on which you provided training.

These are all proxy measures for actual observation of skill implementation. While you could do skill mastery ratings by observing participants back in their work site, this is not practical for most practitioners, and participants may be uncomfortable with this evaluation method.

 
Tip Sheet: Expert Solutions to the 12 Most Common Training Delivery Problems of Novice Trainers
Problem Solutions
1. Fear •       Be well prepared. Have a detailed lesson plan, understand the material, and practice your presentation.
•       Use icebreakers. Use icebreakers and begin with an activity that relaxes participants and gets them to talk and become involved.
•       Acknowledge the fear. Understand that fear is normal, confront what makes you afraid, and use positive self-talk or relaxation exercises before the presentation.
2. Credibility •       Don’t apologize. Be honest about the subject matter and explain that you are either an expert or a conduit.
•       Act like a professional. Be well prepared and well organized. Listen, observe, and apply what you know to what the participants know.
•       Share personal background. Talk about your areas of expertise and the variety of experiences you’ve had.
3. Personal experiences        •       Report personal experiences. Share your personal experiences; ask yourself probing questions to uncover them.
•       Report experiences of others. Collect pertinent stories and incidents from other people or have participants share their experiences.
•       Use analogies, movies, or famous people. Use familiar incidents or situations to relate to the subject.
4. Difficult learners  •       Confront problem learners. Use humor. You might also talk to the individual during a break to determine the problem. If problem behavior doesn’t stop, ask the person to leave.
•       Circumvent dominating behavior. Use nonverbal cues, such as breaking eye contact or standing with your back to the person, and invite others to participate.
•       Use small groups for timid behavior. Quiet people usually feel more comfortable talking in small groups or dyads. Structure exercises where a wide range of participation is encouraged.
5. Participation       •       Ask open-ended questions. Incorporate questions into the lesson plans and provide positive feedback when people do participate.
•       Plan small group activities. Use dyads, case studies, and role plays to allow people to feel comfortable, to reduce fears, and to increase participation.
•       Invite participation. Structure activities that allow people to share early on in the presentation.
6. Timing      •       Plan well. Plan for too much material and prioritize activities so you can delete parts, if necessary.
•       Practice, practice, practice. Practice the material many times so you know where you should be at 15-minute intervals. Make sure there’s a clock in the training room.
7. Adjust instruction •       Know group needs. Determine the needs of the group early on in the training and structure activities and processes based on those needs.
•       Request feedback. Watch for signs of boredom and ask participants, either during breaks or periodically during the session, how they feel about the training.
•       Redesign during breaks. Have contingency plans and, if necessary, redesign the program during a break. Redesigning during delivery is not recommended.
8. Questions   Asking questions:
•       Ask concise questions. Questions are a great tool. Ask concise, simple questions and give enough time for participants to answer.

Answering questions:
•       Anticipate questions. Before the training, put yourself in the participants’ place and write out key questions they might ask. Formulate your answers to those questions.
•       Paraphrase learners’ questions. Repeat and paraphrase participants’ questions to ensure that everyone has heard the questions and understands them.
•       Don’t be afraid to say, “I don’t know.” Redirect questions you cannot answer back to the group’s expertise. Try to locate answers during breaks. 
9. Feedback    •       Solicit informal feedback. Ask participants, either during class or at the break, if the training is meeting their needs and expectations. Also, watch for nonverbal cues.
•       Do summative evaluations. Have participants fill out forms at the conclusion of training to determine if the objectives and needs of the group were met.
10. Media, materials, facilities      Media:
•       Know equipment. Know how to operate fully every piece of equipment you will use.
•       Have back-ups. Carry a survival kit of extra light bulbs, extension cords, markers, tape, etc. Bring the information you are presenting in another medium.
•       Enlist assistance. Be honest with the group if there is a breakdown and ask if anyone can be of assistance. 

Material:
•       Be prepared. Have all materials ready and placed at each participant’s workplace or stacked for distribution.

Facilities:
•       Visit facility beforehand. Visit a new facility ahead of time, if possible, to see the layout of the room, get an idea of where things are located, and decide how to set up.
•       Arrive early. Arrive at least an hour in advance to ensure enough time for setting up and handling problems.
11. Openings and closings      Openings:
•       Develop an “openings” file. There are many sources for icebreaker ideas. As you discover which ones work well with your trainings, keep them on file.
•       Memorize. Develop a great opening and memorize it.
•       Relax trainees. Greet people as they enter, take time for introductions, and create a relaxed atmosphere.

 

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